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Elixirs And Flavoring Extraxts

by

John Uri Lloyd


   Their History, Formulae, & Methods of Preparation




EDITOR'S NOTE: John Uri Lloyd (1849-1936) founded Lloyd Brothers Pharmacy in
Cincinnati, and was responsible for the formulation of a body of plant extracts
called Specific Medicines (following the recommendations of Scudder).  The
pharmacy closed in the early 1960's, but his legacy is still present as the
Lloyd Library, (the largest library of medical plant books in the world), the
Lloyd Extractor, his pioneering work in colloidal chemistry, and several
bestselling works of fiction, including "Stringtown" on the Pike and the mystical
 "Etidorhpa".
     He began as a raw apprentice in 1862 to W.J.M.Gordon in Cincinnati.  When
he finished the apprenticeship (a three or four-year stint), he re-apprenticed
with ANOTHER pharmacist, George Eger, in order to learn German pharmacy .  By
the time he met up with two famous medical radicals, Dr. John King and Dr.
J.M.Scudder, he was so expert at PHYSICAL pharmacy that, now in his late 20's,
he was offered the position as the director of the H. M. Merrell and Co.
Laboratories, at that time the primary manufacturer for both Eclectic and
Physio-Medical pharmaceuticals.  He and his ill-fated brother (the premier
mycologist of the age) eventually bought out Merrill...and Lloyd Brothers was
begun.
     The three editions of Elixir Formulae were written to attempt codification
of a wildly chaotic...and dangerous state of affairs in American Medicine. 
They became THE standards for 15 years...and helped lead the way for the first
National Formulary of 1888. Because of his alliance with medical radicals ("the
Loyal Opposition") he was blacklisted from the first N.F. congress, locked out
by hardliners in the American Pharmaceutical Association. Since the whole thing
was his brainchild, and he was de-facto editor of the first N.F., the uproar
amongst REAL pharmacists was so great (they ALL used his book) that the old
guard was promptly booted out and he was elected for the first time as President
of A.P.A.  Shunned again ten years later (again for his association with the
"Enemies of Medicine"), the rank-and-file AGAIN re-elected him president. EIGHT
times in 45 years the attempt was made to kick him out as a member of the
American Pharmaceutical Association...all attempts soundly failed, since he was
the most famous supporter of the working pharmacist...a grass-roots druggist
whose soda-fountain recipes were famous.
     The culmination of his work (in my opinion) was the Third Revision of
"King's American Dispensatory" in 1898, 2200 pages of the best PLANT Pharmacy
ever assembled.  For the last 20 years of his life, he expended his near-mythic
reputation in pharmacy writing curmudgeonly emeriti-type articles in
Pharmaceutical journals in futile attempts to draw his fellow pharmacists away
from chemical reductionism and back into viewing plants as entities, not sources
of drug compounds. That he was twice elected president of the American
Pharmaceutical Association is a stunning tribute to his stature, since he was an
infamous gadfly and "irregular", always proudly flaunting his lack of formal
education, devotion to plant medicines, and Eclectic roots, mostly moribund
issues in his later years, since "regular" medicine had clearly prevailed. This
was the equivalent of Dr. Andrew Weil being appointed Surgeon General or Adelle
Davis being elected President of the American Medical Association.
     Radical though he was, he was still a MAN of his times, and should be
forgiven his failure to acknowledge the existence of TWO genders in pharmacy

     He was perhaps the only true American alchemist.   Michael Moore

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                               TABLE OF CONTENTS
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EDITOR'S NOTE:
PREFACE.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
PREFACE TO THE THIRD REVISED EDITION.
ELIXIRS. (history)
  ELIXIR PROPRIETATIS WITH DISTILLED VINEGAR.
  THE USES.
  AMERICAN ELIXIRS.
    "CORDIAL ELIXIR OF QUININE.
ELIXIR FORMULAE
1. ELIXIR ADJUVANS.
2. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF AMMONIUM.
3. ELIXIR ALOES.
4. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM.
    SOLUTION OF CARMINE.
5. ELIXIR of VALERIANATE of AMMONIUM with CINCHONIDINE .
6. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH CINCHONIDINE AND CINCHONINE.
7. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH CINCHONIDINE, CINCHONINE, AND
     STRYCHNINE.
8. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM W/CINCHONIDINE AND PYROPHOSPHATE OF
     IRON.
9. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH CINCHONIDINE, PYROPHOSPHATE OF
     IRON, AND STRYCHNINE.
10. ELIXIR of VALERIANATE of AMMONIUM with CINCHONINE.
11. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH CINCHONINE AND PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
12. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH CINCHONINE, PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON,
     AND STRYCHNINE
13. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH CINCHONlNE AND STRYCHNINE.
14. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
15. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM AND QUININE.
16. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE AND CINCHONIDINE
17. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE, CINCHONIDINE, AND
     STRYCHNINE.
18. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE, CINCHONIDINE,
     PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON, AND STRYCHNINE.
19. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE AND CINCHONINE.
20. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE,CINCHONINE, AND STRYCHNINE.
21. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE AND PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
22. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE, PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON, AND
     STRYCHNINE.
23. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.
24. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH STRYCHNINE.
25. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH SUMBUL.
26. ELIXIR ANTIGLAIREUX.
27. ELIXIR ANTIGOUTTEUX DE VILLETTE.
28. AROMATIC ELIXIR.
29. ELIXIR OF IODIDE OF ARSENIC AND MERCURY.
30. ELIXIR OF BEEF.
31. ELIXIR OF BEEF AND CITRATE OF IRON.
32. ELIXIR OF BEEF, IRON, AND CINCHONA.
33. ELIXIR OF BLACK HAW.
ELIXIRS CONTAINING AMMONIO-CITRATE OF BISMUTH.
34. ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH.
35. ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
36. ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH WITH PEPSIN
37. ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH WITH PEPSIN AND STRYCHNINE.
38. ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH WITH STRYCHNINE.
39. BITTER ELIXIR.
40. ELIXIR OF BLACKBERRY.
41. ELIXIR OF BOLDO.
42. ELIXIR OF BRANDY.
43. ELIXIR OF BUCHU.
44. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF BUCHU.
45. ELIXIR OF BUCKTHORN.
46. ELIXIR OF CAFFEINE.
47. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF CALCIUM.
ELIXIR OF IODO-BROMIDE OF CALCIUM.
48. ELIXIR OF HYPOPHOSPHITE OF CALCIUM.
49. ELIXIR OF LACTOPHOSPHATE OF CALCIUM.
50. ELIXIR OF MONO-BROMATED CAMPHOR.
51. ELIXIR CAMPHOR MONO-BROMATED, COMPOUND.
52. COMPOUND CATHARTIC ELIXIR.
53. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CELERY.
54  ELIXIR OF WILD CHERRY.
55. ELIXIR OF WILD CHERRY WITH CHLORIDE OF IRON AND CITRATE OF AMMONIUM.
56. ELIXIR OF HYDRATE OF CHLORAL.
57. ELIXIR OF CIMICIFUGA.
58. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CIMICIFUGA.
59. CLAUDER'S ELIXIR
60. ELIXIR OF COCA.
61. ELIXIR OF COCA AND GUARANA.
62. ELIXIR OF COLUMBO.
63. ELIXIR OF COLUMBO, CITRATE OF IRON, AND RHUBARB.
64. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CORYDALIS.
65. ELIXIR of COTO.
66. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CHLOROFORM.
67. ELIXIR CHLOROFORMIQUE OF BOUCHUT.
68. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CRAMP BARK.
69. ELIXIR OF CROTON.
ELIXIRS OF CALISAYA OR CINCHONA BARK AND ITS ALKALOIDS.
PREPARATIONS OF ALKALOIDS.
ALKALOID QUININE OR ALKALOID CINCHONIDINE.
70. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA (OR CINCHONA.  See No. 71).
71. ELIXIR OF CINCHONA.
72. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA ALKALOIDS.
73. DETANNATED ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK.
74. DESLAURIER'S ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND COFFEE.
75. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA WITH LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.
76. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND CHLORIDE OF IRON WITH AMMONIUM CITRATE.
77. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, CITRATE OF IRON, AND BEEF.
78  ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND CHLORIDE OF IRON WITH AMMONIUM CITRATE AND GENTIAN.
79  ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, CITRATE OF IRON, BEEF, AND STRYCHNINE.
80. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON.
81. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON AND STRYCHNINE.
82. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
83. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND CITRATE OF AMMONIUM
      AND BISMUTH.
84. ELIXIR Of CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON, CITRATE OF AMMONIUM
      AND BISMUTH, AND STRYCHNINE.
85. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND LACTOPHOSPHATE OF CALCIUM.
86. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND PEPSIN.
87. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND STRYCHNINE.
88. ELIXIR OF CINCHONA AND HYPOPHOSPHITES.
89. DETANNATED ELIXIR OF CINCHONA.
90. ELIXIR OR CINCHONINE.
91. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATES OF CINCHONINE AND CINCHONIDINE.
92. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATES OF CINCHONINE AND STRYCHNINE
93. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONIDINE.
94. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATES OF CINCHONIDINE, CINCHONINE, AND STRYCHNINE.
95. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATES OF CINCHONIDINE AND STRYCHNINE.
96. ELIXIR OF ACETATE OF CHINOIDINE.
97. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CHINOIDINE.
98. ELIXIR OF BISULPHATE OF QUININE.
99. ELIXIR OF HYDROBROMATE OF QUININE.
100. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE.
101. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF QUININE.
102. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE AND CINCHONIDINE.
103. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE AND CINCHONINE.
104. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATES OF QUININE, CINCHONIDINE, AND CINCHONINE.
105. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE WITH CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON.
106. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE WITH CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON AND
     STRYCHNINE.
107. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.
1O8. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF QUININE.
109. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF QUININE WITH STRYCHNINE.
110. ELIXIR OF COCA
111. ELIXIR OF CURAOA.
112. ELIXIR OF DANDELION.
113. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF DANDELION.
114. ELIXIR OF DANDELION WITH QUININE.
115. DAFFY'S ELIXIR.
116. ELIXIR OF DAMIANA.
117. ELIXIR DEWBERRY COMPOUND.
118. ELIXIR OF EUCALYPTUS.
119. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF EUCALYPTUS.
120. ELIXIR DE GlARUS.
121. ELIXIR OF GENTIAN.
122. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF GENTIAN.
123. ELIXIR OF WILD GINGER.
124. ELIXIR OF GLYCYRRHIZIN.
125. ELIXIR OF GLYCYRRHIZIN (AROMATIC)
126. ELIXIR OF GRINDELIA ROBUSTA.
127. ELIXIR OF GUARANA.
128. ELIXIR OF GUAIACUM.
129. ELIXIR ACIDUM HALLERI.
130. HELMONT'S ELIXIR.
131. ELIXIR OF HELONIAS.
132. HOFFMANN'S STOMACH ELIXIR.
133. ELIXIR OF HOPS.
134. ELIXIR OF HOPS AND CHIRETTA.
135. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF HOPS.
136. HUFELAND'S ELIXIR.
137. ELIXIR OF HYPOPHOSPHITES.
138. ELIXIR OF HYPOPHOSPHITES WITH IRON.
139. ELIXIR OF AMMONIO-CITRATE OF IRON.
140. ELIXIR OF IPECAC.
141. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF IRON.
142. ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF IRON WITH QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.
143. ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON.
144. ELIXIR OF CITRATE AND LACTATE OF IRON.
145. ELIXIR OF CHLORIDE OF IRON WITH AMMONIUM CITRATE AND GENTIAN.
146. ELIXIR OF CHLORIDE OF IRON WITH HYDROCHLORATE OF QUININE AND
       ARSENIOUS ACID.
147. ELIXIR OF PROTOCHLORIDE OF IRON.
148  ELIXIR OF HYPOPHOSPHITE OF IRON.
149. ELIXIR OF IODIDE OF IRON WITH IODIDE OF QUININE.
150. ELIXIR OF LACTATE OF IRON.
151. ELIXIR OF LACTATE OF IRON WITH PEPSIN.
152. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF IRON.
153. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PHOSPHATE OF QUININE.
154. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PHOSPHATE OF QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.
ELIXIRS WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
155. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
156. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH BISMUTH AND PEPSIN.
157. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH CINCHONIDINE.
158. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH CINCHONIDINE AND STRYCHNINE
159. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE, CINCHONIDINE, AND STRYCHNINE.
160. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH CINCHONINE .
161. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND QUININE.
162. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE AND CINCHONIDINE.
163. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE AND CINCHONINE.
164. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE, CINCHONINE, AND STRYCHNINE.
165. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.
166. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH VALERIANATE OF QUININE AND ACETATE OF
       STRYCHNINE.
167. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PEPSIN
168. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PEPSIN, BISMUTH, AND STRYCHNINE.
169. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PEPSIN AND STRYCHNINE.
170. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND STRYCHNINE.
171  ELIXIR OF JUNIPER BERRIES.
172. ELIXIR OF JABORANDI.
173. KLEIN'S STOMACHIC ELIXIR.
ELIXIR LACTOPEPTIN.
174. ELIXIR OF LACTUCARIUM.
175. LAXATIVE ELIXIR.
176. LEROY'S PURGATIVE ELIXIR.
177. LEROY'S VOMITO-PURGATIVE ELIXIR.
178. LETTSOM'S ELIXIR.
179. BITTER ELIXIR OF LIFE.*
180. ELIXIR OF LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.
181. ELIXIR OF LICORICE.
182. ELIXIR OF LICORICE (AROMATIC).
183. ELIXIR E SUCCO LIQUIRITAE.
184. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF LITHIUM.
185. ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF LITHIUM
186. ELIXIR OF SALICYLATE OF LITHIUM
187. ELIXIR OF LUPULIN.
188. ELIXIR OF MALT.
189. ELIXIR OF MALT AND IRON.
190. ELIXIR OF MALT AND PEPSIN.
191. ELIXIR OF MALTO-PEPSIN.
192. ELIXIR OF MATICO.
193. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MATICO.
194. ELIXIR OF MAY-APPLE
195. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MAY-APPLE
196. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MYRRH.
197. ELIXIR OF NUX VOMICA.
198. McMUNN'S ELIXIR OF OPIUM.
199. ELIXIR OF ORANGE.
200. ELIXIR OF PANCREAS.
201. ELIXIR OF PAREIRA BRAVA.
202. ELIXIR OF PAREIRA BRAVA AND BUCHU.
203. ELIXIR PAREGORICUM.
204. PECTORAL ELIXIR OF THE EDINBURGH Pharmacopoeia, 1770.
ELIXIRS CONTAINING PEPSIN.
205. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN.
206. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN WITH CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH, AND PHOSPHATE OF
       QUININE.
207. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONIDINE.
208. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN WITH PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONIDINE AND STRYCHNINE.
209. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONINE.
210. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN WITH PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONINE AND STRYCHNINE.
211. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND IRON.
212. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS
213. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND WAFER ASH.
214. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND PHOSPHATE OF QUININE.
215. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, PHOSPHATE OF QUININE, AND STRYCHNINE.
216. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, PHOSPHATE OF QUININE, STRYCHNINE, AND CITRATE OF
       AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH.
217. ELIXIR OF PEPTONE.
218. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS.
219. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS.
220. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS WITH QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.
221. ELIXIR OF ACETATE OF POTASSIUM.
222. ELIXIR OF ARSENITE OF POTASSIUM.
223. ELIXIR OF ACETATE OF POTASSIUM AND BUCHU.
224. ELIXIR OF BUCHU, JUNIPER, AND ACETATE OF POTASSIUM.
225. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF POTASSIUM
226. ELIXIR OF IODIDE OF POTASSIUM
227. ELIXIR PROPRIETATIS.
228. ELIXIR PROPRIETATIS CUM ACIDO.
229. RADCLIFF'S PURGING ELIXIR.
230. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RASPBERRY.
231. RED ELIXIR. (RED SIMPLE ELIXIR. )
232. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RHAMNUS FRANGULA.
233. ELIXIR OF RHAMNUS PURSHIANA.
234. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RHAMNUS PURSHIANA.
235. ELIXIR ROBORANS WHYTTII.
236. ELIXIR OF RHUBARB.
237. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RHUBARB.
238. ELIXIR OF RHUBARB AND COLUMBO.
239. ELIXIR OF RHUBARB AND MAGNESIA.
240. ELIXIR OF SALICIN.
241. SACRED.ELIXIR.
242. ELIXIR OF SALICYLIC ACID.
243. ELIXIR OF SCAMMONY.
244. ELIXIR SALUTIS.
245. ELIXIR OF SENNA.
246. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF SENNA.
247. SIMPLE: ELIXIR.
248. ELIXIR OF ARSENITE OF SODIUM.
249. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF SODIUM.
250. ELIXIR OF HYPOPHOSPHITE OF SODIUM.
251. ELIXIR OF IODIDE OF SODIUM.
252. ELIXIR OF SALICYLATE OF SODIUM.
253  SQUIRE'S ELIXIR.
254. ST. HUBERT'S HUNTERS' ELIXIR.
255. ELIXIR OF STILLINGIA.
256. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF STILLINGIA.
257. STOMACHIC ELIXIR.
258. STOUGHTON'S ELIXIR
269. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF STRYCHNINE.
260. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF SUMBUL.
261. ELIXIR OF TAR
262. ELIXIR OF TAR COMPOUND.
263. ELIXIR OF THUJA OCCIDENTALIS.
264. ELIXIR OF VALERIAN.
265. MYNFICHT'S ELIXIR OF VITRIOL.
266. SWEET ELIXIR OF VITRIOL.
* AROMATIC TINCTURE.
**DULCIFIED SPIRIT OF VITRIOL.
267. VIGANI'S VOLATILE ELIXIR OF VITRIOL.
268. ELIXIR OF WAHOO.
269. ELIXIR OF YERBA SANTA.
270. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF YERBA SANTA.
271. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF ZINC.

PART SECOND.
    FLAVORING EXTRACTS, ESSENCES, FLAVORED SYRUPS,
    COLORING LIQUIDS, AND OTHER SODA-WATER APPLIANCES.
INTRODUCTION
SODA-WATER APPLIANCES.
FLAVORING EXTRACTS.
FRUIT ESSENCES.
S-1.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ALLSPICE.
S-2.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ALMONDS (PEACH).
S-3.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF BANANA.
S-4.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF BLACK PEPPER.
S-5.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CAPSICUM.
S-6   FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CELERY.
S-7.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CHOCOLATE.
S-8.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CLOVES.
S-9.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CINNAMON
S-10. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF COFFEE.
S-11. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF GINGER.
S-12. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF GINGER (SOLUBLE).
FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF LEMON.
S-13. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON, GOOD (FROM THE OIL).
S-14. FLAVORING; EXTRACT OF LEMON, CHEAP (FROM THE OIL) .
S-15. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON, CHEAP (FROM THE OIL).
S-16. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON.
S-17. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON (STRENGTHENED).
S-18. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF NECTAR.
S-19. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF NECTARINE.
S-20. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF NUTMEG.
FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF ORANGE.
S-21. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (GOOD).
S-22. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (CHEAP).
S-23. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (CHEAP).
S-24. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (CHEAP).
FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF PINEAPPLE.
S-25. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF PINEAPPLE (STRONG).
S-26. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF PINEAPPLE (MODIFIED).
S-27. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF PINEAPPLE (CHEAP).
S-28. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF RASPBERRY.
FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF ROSE.
S-29. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ROSE (BEST).
S-30. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ROSE (CHEAP).
S-31. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF SARSAPARILLA.
S-32. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF STRAWBERRY.
FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF VANILLA.
S-33. FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (FINE).
S-34. FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (CHEAP).
S-35. FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (CHEAP).
S-36. FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (CHEAP).
S-37. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF WINTERGREEN.
SODA-WATER SYRUPS.
S-38. SIMPLE SYRUP (SODA SYRUP).
S-39. SYRUP OF ALMOND OR PEACH.
S-40. CHOCOLATE SYRUP.
S-41. SYRUP OF COFFEE.
S-42. SYRUP OF COFFEE.
S-43. SYRUP OF GINGER.
S-44. SYRUP OF GINGER.
S-45. SYRUP OF LEMON.
S-46. SYRUP OF NECTARINE.
S-47. SYRUP OF ORANGE.
S-48. SYRUP OF BLOOD ORANGE.
S-49. SYRUP OF PINE:APPLE.
S-50. SYRUP OF RASPBERRY.
S-51. SYRUP OF ROSE.
S-52. SYRUP OF SARSAPARILLA.
S-53. SYRUP OF STRAWBERRY.
S-54. SYRUP OF VANILLA.
CREAM SYRUPS.
S-55. CREAM SYRUP (ORANGE CREAM).
S-56. NECTAR SYRUP (NECTAR CREAM).
FRUIT SYRUPS.
S-57. BLACKBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.
S-58. RASPBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.
S-59. STRAWBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.
S-60. CHERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.
S-61. GRAPE (FRUIT) SYRUP.
S-61. PINEAPPLE (FRUIT) SYRUP.
S-63. QUINCE (FRUIT) SYRUP.
WINE SYRUPS.
"TONIC" SYRUPS.
S-64. SOLUTION OF COCHINEAL (CARMINE).
S-65. CURCUMA  [TURMERIC]  (YELLOW).
S-66. CARAMEL  [BURNT SUGAR]  (BROWN).
FROTHING LIQUIDS.
S-67.
S-68.
S-69.
S-70.  TINCTURE OF SOAP BARK (QUILLAYA).
FANCIFUL TITLES.
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
                                   PREFACE.
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

     WERE pharmacists united in opposition to elixirs, and sufficiently
independent to warrant them in saying that they are unnecessary preparations,
and that they would not manufacture or dispense them; or could pharmacists so
influence and control physicians as to positively prevent them from prescribing
elixirs; or were the past numbers of all our pharmaceutical journals possessed
by, or readily accessible to, each and every pharmacist in the country there
would then be no necessity for, nor utility in, the publication of a work upon
elixirs and the methods of preparing them.  At the present time there
undoubtedly exists a demand for this class of preparations, and, in order to
improve, as well as retain, their legitimate trade, our pharmacists are, in a
measure, compelled to dispense them, as they do not desire to displease their
medical patrons by any indications of what might be considered as offensive
dictation.  Such being the case, and as a large number of the pharmacists of
this country are not possessors of the past numbers of pharmaceutical journals,
we have been induced to prepare this little work.
     In presenting these formulae, the result of years of actual laboratory
experience, and the careful study of the back numbers of all our pharmaceutical
journals, we cannot doubt that they will be valuable to pharmacists, and that
the investment will quickly return to each purchaser more than the outlay for
the book.
     Upon this question of elixirs we find our American pharmacists greatly
divided: some decidedly object to them, no matter under what considerations or
circumstances, and obstinately refuse to listen to a favorable word for any one
of them; others uphold that carefully prepared elixirs, in which the
disagreeableness and offensiveness of certain drugs entering into their
composition are more or less masked, are to be commended.  Not infrequently the
opponents of elixirs are quite violent in their denunciation of them, and more
especially as being of too complex a character; and yet these very objectors
will favor other mixtures and preparations that are still more complex, and
fully as unscientific as the majority of compound elixirs.  On the other hand,
the advocates of elixirs frequently associate incompatibles in their
preparations, thereby rendering them valueless.  By this course they weaken the
cause they are endeavoring to sustain, as the articles they present to the
public prove to be unreliable.  In our opinion, there is an intermedium, a
conservative position, between those who unreservedly condemn and those who
indiscriminately recommend, and it will be found that there are many excellent
pharmacists occupying this position who argue that, with judgment in selection
and skill in manipulation, a line of elixirs may be produced that will favorably
compare with the products of other sections of pharmacy, and that in their
preparation as much science and competency may be displayed as in making other
classes of pharmaceuticals.
     In the present work we have endeavored to point out defects, as well as
incompatible combinations; and though at first glance the impression may be
conveyed that we entertain a positive hostility to elixirs, yet, as it must be
admitted by every one that there is considerable room for friendly pruning, we
trust that our remarks will be received in the same kind spirit as that in which
they are made, and that we will not be reproached for being unnecessarily
censorious. And notwithstanding that our criticisms may appear to be severe, we
believe them to be fair and unprejudiced, and of such a character that both the
advocate and the opponent of " American Elixirs " may derive both satisfaction
and benefit from their perusal.
     J. U. L.

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
                         PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

     WITHIN three months from the appearance of the first edition of this book,
the publishers have notified us that a second is demanded. This encourages us
to believe that our work is not wholly unappreciated.  We issued the first
edition with misgivings.  We feared that the class of preparations embraced
under the name elixir would not prove sufficiently interesting and valuable to
warrant the publication of a work devoted exclusively to this subject.  Then,
too, various problems arose when we attempted to untangle the intricate elixir
history, to reconcile incompatibles, to criticize judiciously, and to prevent
our prejudices from occasionally influencing our remarks. These and other points
rendered our labor by no means pleasant.  However, the favor with which the
first edition has been received, and the many words of approval regarding it,
lead us to believe that our labor has not been lost.  We cordially invite
pharmacists to notify us of any troublesome formula in this book, to correspond
with us concerning elixirs in local use, if omitted by it, and to advise us of
any historical oversight.
     J. U. L.

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
                   PREFACE TO THE THIRD REVISED EDITION.
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    As two former revisions of this little work have each been honored with a
call for several editions, and as there is at the same time a palpable decrease
in the sale of trade elixirs, there seems to be ample room for the conclusion
that preparations of this class are passing from the hands of manufacturing
chemists into those of the pharmacists themselves.  This fact, notwithstanding
an admitted decrease in the consumption of elixirs, will suffice to account for
a third revision.     The addition of about thirty new formulae brings the total
of the present edition to two hundred and seventy one; and, with the benefit of
experience, many of the older formulae have been modified and improved.  Thanks
to the cordial interest with which it has been favored by the profession, and
friendly correspondence received from many of its members, we are enabled to
present with each revision many valuable alterations in the processes.  We
desire at once to thank them heartily, and to beg them to show a continued
interest in the same friendly way.
     J. U. L.     CINCINNATI, November 10th, 1891.

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
                                  ELIXIRS.
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

     THROUGH the courtesy of Dr. Charles Rice, to whom application was made by
the author for notes on the derivation of the word "elixir," we are enabled to
present his reply verbatim, and in addition presume to say a few words
concerning the "elixir" of the past and of the present which may interest the
reader:

     DEAR FRIEND:In reply to your inquiry concerning the etymology of the word
 " elixir," I would say that the word is proximately derived from the Arabic [],
being composed of the article [] (al or el) and [] .
     The latter is an arabicized form of the Greek word [] (xirion, the [] []
being pronounced like ee). This derivation was first recognized and announced by
Fleischer in 1839, but it seems to have been overlooked by later writers. 
Hermann Kopp, the historian of chemistry, in his "Beitrage zur Geschichte der
Chemie" (1869, p.209), quotes a number of passages from later Greek authors and
from writers of the alchemistic school, in which he shows that the Greek [] and
the Arabic [] are identical in signification, but he fails to notice their
etymological identity.  The Arabs cannot pronounce an initial [] (x) without
placing an auxiliary or supporting vowel in front of the double consonant, thus
making [].  This peculiarity of avoiding an initial double consonant (sc, sp,
etc.) occurs also in other languages, for instance in Spanish, where we have
espera, escila, espiritu, etc.
     The word [], in medical works, means any "dry powder" (from [], dry), such
as is used for dusting wounds. In alchemy it was used to denote the magical
transformation powder so much sought after, a pinch of which would convert a
whole mass of base metal into gold.  Iksr, in this sense, is identical with
another interesting Arabic term, viz., [] from which our word chemi-stry is
derived, but which is itself derived from the Greek).  This was also applied to
a concrete thing, namely, the substance supposed to be capable of making gold. 
For instance, we meet such expressions as [],"the making of the kimiya," and [],
" the making of the iksr," both meaning the same thing.
     In later, technical language, "Elixir" was used to denote various
preparations more or less alchemistic.  It was, for instance, synonymous with
"Liquid Tincture," the first step in the preparation of the philosopher's stone;
and there was a white and a red elixir distinguished.  Or, it designated any
compound preparation of supposed " sublime " properties, reputed to prolong
life and to ward off disease.
            Sincerely yours, CHARLES RICE.
     By referring to the letter of Dr. Rice it will be seen that at an early
period the term elixir designated "the magical transformation powder so much
sought after, a pinch of which would convert a whole mass of base metal into
gold."  Afterward the word was used " to denote various preparations more or
less alchemistic," and it is to be presumed that curious or potent liquids were
gradually introduced and included among powders.  Finally, the word elixir was
applied only to liquids, but these, like the original magical powder, were
supposed to possess the power of transmuting base metals into noble metals.
     Dr. Rice states that particular emphasis was once placed on a white and a
red elixir.  From a curious little work in our possession, bearing date 1682,
we present, for the reader's inspection, a facsimile of the processes
recommended for making these preparations; and that the quaint formulae may be
rendered more intelligible, we give a facsimile of a table which explains the
characters employed in the book, as follows:

                   [a 2-page facsimile]

An Explanation of Characters used in this Book.

                   [a 1-page facsimile]

     It will be observed that the white elixir, "Elixir Album," can only
produce silver, while the red elixir, "Elixir Rubrum," will transmute mercury
into pure gold.  We call attention to the red powder which is formed near the
completion of the process in making elixir rubrum, and which is used to prepare
the magical "oyl," and to the assertion that this same red powder "cureth most
diseases in man's body." Here we have an approach to the elixir of life (elixir
vitae) of the alchemists, together with the properties ascribed to the
philosopher's stone.  In this connection, a quotation from the writings of that
celebrated author of the eighteenth century, Boerhaave, is of interest
concerning the elixir vitae, which, in Boerhaave's language, was "one of the
chief things which the alchemists promise."  Their aim was to "discover an
artificial body of such virtue and efficacy, as that being applied to any body
of any of the three kingdoms, it shall improve its natural inherent virtues, so
as to make it the most perfect thing in its kind.  Thus, for instance, if
applied to the human body, it will be come an universal medicine, and make such
a change, both in the solid and fluid parts thereof, as shall render it
perfectly sound, and even maintain it in that state, until the parts being
slowly worn away and spent, death gently and without a struggle takes
possession."
     We find, therefore, that the alchemists, by the term elixir, intended to
designate substances which could either convert base metals into gold or silver,
or could prolong life and heal the sick, or embody both properties; and also,
that this substance might be either a liquid or a solid.  We do not generally
accredit the alchemists with a desire to heal diseases after the manner of
physicians of the present day, and doubtless the majority searched only for
riches.  However, while they mostly desired gold and silver, they realized that
the use of only an ordinary amount could be enjoyed in the usual lifetime
allotted to man.  Again, many of these infatuated men were on the brink of the
grave when their hopes seemed most likely to be realized, and of vital
importance would be the possession of a substance which could prolong life. 
Hence we find that some of them were searching directly for gold, or the
philosopher's stone by means of which all base metal could be changed into gold,
while others desired most the elixir of life, "elixir vitae." which could extend
life and change old age into youth.  Indeed, as incentives to their labors were
the assertions that these wonderful elixirs had been discovered by others, and
we quote from "The Birth of Chemistry" that "S. Thomas Aquinas was, like his
master (Albertus Magnus), a magician.  We are told that between them they
constructed a brazen statue, which Albertus animated with his elixir vitae."
     Culi asserted that "he converted fifty thousand pounds weight of base
metals into gold," and is said to have furnished his king with six millions of
money.  Paracelsus (born 1493, died 1541) is generally accredited with
instituting a new era in the study, for he was prominent in showing that
alchemy, which flourished in his day, and of which he was a zealous student,
could be of value to physicians, and that the knowledge derived from their
investigations could be turned to advantage in the treatment of disease.  Like
the old alchemists, however, Paracelsus surrounded his process with mysterious
expressions, and disjointed them until they were incomprehensible.
     He originated the "Elixir Proprietatis," stating that it was so potent as
"to continue health and long life to the utmost possible limits" (Boerhaave). 
This wonderful elixir was concocted by cumbersome processes from such simples as
saffron, aloes, and myrrh; and notwithstanding Paracelsus claimed that by using
the vaunted elixir proprietatis "he should live as long as Methuselah," he died
a broken wreck in his forty-seventh year.  We find that this elixir, which is a
record of Paracelsus' egotism, has been recognized in our dispensatories and in
the older pharmacopoeias, with more or less alteration, even to the present day.
Boerhaave gave five different processes for making it, each of which produced,
in his opinion, a most potent remedy.  As a curiosity, and to illustrate the
wonderful properties attributed to these concoctions in those days, and to the
virtues of which even such a chemist as Boerhaave could certify, we reproduce
from his "Elementa Chemiae," which was published in 1724, the formula and uses
of his

ELIXIR PROPRIETATIS WITH DISTILLED VINEGAR.

     "Take choice aloes, saffron, and myrrh, of each half an ounce, cut and
bruise them, put them into a tall bolt-head, pour twenty times their own weight
of the strongest distilled vinegar thereon, let them simmer together in our
little wooden furnace for twelve hours: now suffer the whole to rest, that the
faeces may subside, and gently strain off the pure liquor through a thin linen;
put half the quantity of distilled vinegar to the remainder, boil and proceed as
before, and throw away the faeces.  Mix the two tinctures together, and distil
with a gentle fire till the whole is thickened to a third; keep the vinegar
that comes over for the same use; and what remains behind is the Elixir
Proprietatis, made with distilled vinegar.

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
     THE USES.
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

     "Thus we obtain an acid, aromatic medicine, of great use in the practice
of physic; for when externally applied, it cleanses and heals putrid, sinuous,
and fistulous old ulcers, defends the parts from  putrefaction, and preserves
them by a true embalming virtue; it also heals ulcers, and cures gangrenes in
the lips, tongue, palate, and jaws.  It has the same effects in the first
passages, when used internally, as often as putrefied matter, corrupted bile,
concreted phlegm, worms, and numberless distempers proceeding from these four
causes, are lodged or seated therein.  Again, it has nearly the same effects in
the blood and viscera, as may easily appear from knowing the virtues of the
three ingredients when dissolved in a subtile vinegar.  It is to be taken in a
morning upon an empty stomach, at least twelve hours after eating; it is given
from a drachm to two or three for a dose in sweet wine or mead, or the like,
walking after it, or having the belly gently rubbed. If taken in a larger dose,
and with a somewhat cooler regimen, it always purges; if in a less dose, and
often repeated, it cleanses the blood by secreting thick urine; and generally
performs both these operations successively.  But if taken plentifully, while
the patient is in bed and the body well covered, it acts as an excellent
sudorific; and afterward usually purges, and proves diuretic, and thus becomes
very useful; whence I conceive that this is the best acid elixir proprietatis,
good in numerous cases, and at the same time safe.
     "Paracelsus declared that an elixir made of aloes, saffron, and myrrh
would prove a vivifying and preserving balsam, able to continue health and long
life to the utmost possible limits; and hence he calls it by a lofty title 'the
elixir of propriety' to man, but concealed the preparation, in which Helmont
asserts the alcahest is required."

     Through the eighteenth century elixirs were numerous, and although their
former alchemistic properties were cast aside, physicians seemed to attribute
to them virtues scarcely less than those ascribed to the famous elixir vitae. 
They were also surrounded with mysteries, and their compositions were most
carefully concealed.  Prominent physicians individualized themselves by
attaching their names to tinctures of herbs extracted with spirit of wine or
with acid solutions, and these names have been handed down to us and are still
in use.  It must not be inferred, however, that these men gave their treasures
openly to competitors, for we find that great care was employed to cover their
processes and to conceal the constituents of these compounds, and at the present
day we find it difficult to decide as to the authenticity of such as Daffey's
Elixir, Helmont's Elixir, Mynsicht's Elixir, Vigani's Elixir, etc., etc. 
Indeed, many of the old works give several formulae for preparing a single
elixir, and often all the processes were impracticable.  Thus we find that with
each revision of the older pharmacopoeias and dispensatories these formulae have
been altered and simplified, and as the outcome we refer to some of our well
known tinctures, which have sprung from and are  modifications of ancient
elixirs:

      ELIXIR SALUTIS gave us Compound Tincture of Senna.
      ELIXIR PAREGORICUM gave us Camphorated Tincture of Opium.
      ELIXIR PROPRIETATIS gave us Compound Tincture of Aloes.
      ELIXIR STOMACHICUM gave us Compound Tincture of Gentian.
      ELIXIR SACRUM gave us Tincture of Rhubarb and Aloes.

     With one exception the name elixir has become obsolete with the foregoing
tinctures, and that one, paregoric, will doubtless, in a moderate period of
time, exist as a relic of history.
     The elixir of the period we have just considered was in reality a compound
tincture, or a modification of what we call a compound tincture.  Hooper's
Medical Dictionary of 1820 defines the elixir as "a term formerly applied to
many preparations similar to compound tinctures."  We find, also, that the old
elixirs were disagreeable and bitter.  There was no desire to render them
pleasant; indeed, the aim seemed to be the concoction of mixtures as nauseating
as possible, and the physician who could produce the nastiest, and which were
followed by the most severe torture to the patient, seemed the best man.  His
motto might well have been
     "I puke. I purge, I sweat 'em,
       And if they die, I let 'em."

     In connection with this phase of the elixir question, we find that of the
elixirs named in the "New Dispensatory," London, 1770, but one contained sugar
or any form of sweetening.  This view of the elixir is still prevalent in
Europe, and the German Pharmacopoeia of 1879 recognized twelve preparations under
the name of elixir, none of which were sweetened.  The idea accepted in our
country at the present time regarding what should be the attributes of an elixir
is strictly an Americanism.  The term Cordial would better define the sweetened
and flavored pharmaceuticals which we shall now consider historically as

AMERICAN ELIXIRS.

     One of the popular elixirs of the present day is advertised to have been
introduced in the year 1830.  Our respected friend Mr. Chas. A. Heinisth writes
us as follows:
     "I send you a copy of an old label for a 'Cordial Elixir of Quinine' my
father formerly made.  This label I remember appeared old when I first worked in
the store in 1838.  How long it had been used is more than I can say or
remember.  This Cordial Elixir of Calisaya was composed of quinine, cloves,
cinnamon, bitter orange peel, capsicum, sugar, and dilute alcohol."
     Mr. Heinisth enclosed us a copy of the original label, taken from one of
the bottles which was in the cellar of the store in 1838.  We take the liberty
to reproduce it, and our readers will note that it closely resembles the elixir
labels of the present day:

"CORDIAL ELIXIR OF QUININE.

     "This excellent preparation is particularly recommended to persons of
delicate habit and weak stomach.  It increases the appetite, facilitates
digestion, and is well adapted to all persons living in low and marshy
countries, where ague and fever prevail, and also for those who are exposed to
damp and wet weather.  It is taken with success by persons weakened by fever and
ague, or by a copious perspiration produced by the heat of summer.  Persons
recovering from bilious fever should use it freely, to prevent a relapse.  From
half a wineglass to a wineglassful is to be taken once or twice a day, as
occasion may require.
     "Prepared and sold by John T. Heinisth, Druggist, East King St.,
Lancaster, Pa."
 
     The first of these trade preparations which the writer can recall was
thrown upon the market in this city (Cincinnati) about 1863, under the name
"Sim's Cordial Elixir of Calisaya."

     It was of a beautiful red color, nicely flavored, and very pleasant to the
taste, and it was the forerunner, or at least among the first, of the line of
pharmaceuticals subsequently scattered so abundantly over our country. 
Afterward the "Elixir of Calisaya and Pyrophosphate of Iron" appeared, and then
"Calisaya, Pyrophosphate of Iron, and Strychnine."  Soon traveling agents for
pharmaceutical houses began to court physicians and so licit them to specify
particular brands when prescribing, thus necessitating duplicates upon the
apothecaries' shelves of the same preparation, and about the year 1874 the
elixir mania was at its height.  The burden thus thrown upon our pharmacists was
considerablemore in the aggregate than most of us can realize.  Elixirs of the
same name, and which should have been identical, were duplicated, or multiplied,
in the same store, and each differed in appearance and flavor from all the
others.  If a prescription was filled with an elixir of calisaya prepared by one
maker, it could not be refilled with that of another, since such a course would
render it liable to be returned by the purchaser as a different medicine from
that obtained at first.  Physician of the highest reputation were accustomed to
specify the brand of elixir desired, and the writer can remember that time and
again he has hurried to distant portions of the city searching for an elixir of
a particular make and which was not in stock, although several substitutes for
what should have been the same preparation were on the shelves.  In addition to
the above-named aggravation, combinations, or rather associations, of substances
incompatible under all ordinary conditions were advertised under the name
elixir, and substances perfectly insoluble in the menstruum employed were
represented as being dissolved; and to add to these questionable features,
quinine and combinations of quinine were asserted to be in a soluble form and
nearly tasteless.  It is needless to consider this phase of the subject longer,
for all are familiar with the result.  The burden was too great; elixirs as a
class were severely criticized, and many pharmacists and physicians included
those which were worthy among those which were indifferent and bad.  The
reaction which followed was disastrous to the interests of the men who
unintentionally brought it about (elixir manufacturers), for physicians largely
ceased ordering elixirs of special make, and pharmacists threw their influences
against the preparations compounded by manufacturers of these specialties. The
writer aims simply to give a brief synopsis of the history of the class of
pharmaceuticals under consideration, and does not wish to argue in favor or
against them; and the elixir of the present day has been reached.
     Throughout this country the preparation of elixirs is gradually passing
from a few wholesale manufacturers into the hands of the many pharmacists. 
Quantities of elixirs are prescribed, but their preparation has extended over
the entire country instead of being confined to a few localities.  Physicians
have their favorite elixirs and prescribe them, but these elixirs must, as a
rule, be unquestionable.  In many instances, however, incompatibles are
undoubtedly brought together at the expense of the final product, drugs
insoluble in the menstruum are supposed to be represented by the resultant
elixir, and tedious, round about methods are employed where simple, direct
processes can be substituted.  Before considering elixirs individually, it is
but just to review their history during the past twenty years, for many
pharmacists have not the necessary works at their command, and reference is
constantly made to the action of the societies which considered them and the men
who early made them a study.
     The Committee on Unofficinal Preparations appointed by the American
Pharmaceutical Association in 1870, was Professor J. Faris Moore, M.D., who
included in his report to the Society (1871) a series of elixirs, and this was
the first general recognition these preparations received from that body.  In
the year following the appointment of the committee (1871), Mr. Ottmar Eberbach
read a volunteer paper before the Society at its meeting in Cleveland. Ohio, in
which he gave the result of his analysis of several commercial elixirs.  The
paper provoked considerable discussion, and resulted in the following:

     "Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed by the President to take
into consideration the subject of elixirs and similar unofficinal preparations
in all its bearings upon pharmacy, and, if deemed proper, to report suitable
formulae for the guidance of the members of this Association."

     In 1872 Professor C. Lewis Diehl contributed an interesting paper on the
elixir subject.  It was read before the Louisville College of Pharmacy, and
afterward published by the pharmaceutical journals, and by this means several
admirable formulae were introduced.  Many of these processes are still used and
accepted as standard, being preferred by pharmacists to those afterward offered
as improvements.  Next (1873) the committee appointed by the American
Pharmaceutical Association made a minority report (including many formulae),
which was that of the chairman of the committee, Mr. J. F. Hancock, and which,
after some discussion, was adopted, and the following resolutions were offered
by Professor J. M. Maisch:

     "Resolved, That the report be adopted, with the recommendation that these
formulae be used by the members of the Association, and that the Secretary be
instructed to send a printed copy with the report to the medical societies of
the United States, with the suggestion that physicians, if prescribing elixirs
at all, prescribe only such formulae as have been adopted by this Association. 
The object is to attain, as nearly as possible, a uniformity in the United
States."
     "Resolved, That Mr. J. F. Hancock be appointed the Committee on
unofficinal Formulas."

     At the meeting of the Society which followed, in Louisville, Ky.. 1874,
the Committee on Unofficinal Formulae failed to introduce elixirs.  However, Mr.
Ebert, of Chicago, presented a series of elixir formulae, based upon those of
Professor C. Lewis Diehl, and prepared by a committee under the supervision of
the Chicago College of Pharmacy, and suggested that they be revised or adopted
by the Society
for general use. After an animated discussion, Mr. Peixotto offered a
resolution, which, amended by Mr. Roberts, was adopted, as follows:

     "Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed, to whom shall be
referred the formulae of elixirs presented by the Chicago College of Pharmacy,
said committee to examine the formulae and carefully compare them with the
formulae adopted at the last annual meeting, or which may be submitted to them,
to modify any or all formulae if necessary, and to report to the next meeting."

     At the next meeting, 1875, the committee reported a number of formulae,
some differing from those previously adopted by the Society, others new.  Since
that time many formulae have been introduced through the "Report on the Progress
of Pharmacy," which is the portion of the Proceedings of the American
Pharmaceutical Association devoted to a review of the advance of pharmacy during
the year, but there has been no other official consideration of these
preparations.
     In reviewing the work to which we have referred, we shall simply say that
in many instances experience has demonstrated that there are defects in the
formulae which may be overcome.  It was not to be expected that the work of
these committees could be perfect, and while from necessity we often deviate in
manipulation from the formulae offered by the committees, we feel that, inasmuch
as the proportions of the medicinal ingredients are retained by us, our formulae
may be considered as answering the requirements of the American Pharmaceutical
Association.  Twenty, nineteen, and sixteen years have passed since these
committees successively reported, fully the time required between two revisions
of our Pharmacopoeia, and doubtless the members of the committees have
individually revised many of their processes, profiting by these years of
experience and by the criticisms of others.  In connection with the elixir
question and the American Pharmaceutical Association, we must not overlook the
valuable paper presented by Mr. R. W. Gardner at the meeting in Saratoga, 1880,
and which embraces more formulae than had elsewhere, to our knowledge, been
compiled at that time, and to which we often refer in the work which follows. 
We must not overlook the series of formulae adopted by the Newark Pharmaceutical
Association in 1876, and those adopted by the Associated Committees of the
National College of Pharmacy and the Medical Society of the District of
Columbia.  The formulae recommended by both of these bodies were published in
the various pharmaceutical journals and served a good purpose.
     Lastly (1884), the "New York and Brooklyn Formulary" appeared and
presented an excellent (though limited in number) line of elixir formulae, which
work being adopted by the American Pharmaceutical Association, Pittsburgh, l885,
and enlarged under the title "National Formulary " (1888), is now the most
complete authoritative treatise on elixirs.  In this edition of our work we have
made the proportions of the drug ingredients conform to those of that
publication for such elixirs as are common to both.  We will add that the
"National Formulary" should be in the hands of every pharmacist.
     Compound elixirs have now multiplied until their number is such as to be
burdensome.  The problem regarding proportion of ingredients was one that early
commanded our attention, and which we endeavored to systematize, in the absence
of authority, so as to conform, if possible, to some general rule.  The
necessity for some such action may be illustrated as follows:
     Elixir of phosphate of quinine contains one grain of quinine in each
fluidrachm.
     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron contains two grains of pyrophosphate of
iron in each fluidrachm.
     What shall be the proportion of phosphate of quinine and of pyrophosphate
of iron in each fluidrachm of elixir of phosphate of quinine and pyrophosphate
of iron?   Again,
     Elixir of phosphate of quinine contains one grain of quinine in each
fluidrachm.
     Elixir of phosphate of cinchonidine contains one grain of cinchonidine in
each fluidrachm.
     Elixir of phosphate of cinchonine contains two grains of cinchonine in
each fluidrachm.
     What shall be the proportion of the several ingredients in the elixir of
phosphate of quinine, cinchonidine, and cinchonine ?
     If each fluidrachm of this last elixir contains the amount of each
ingredient which is present in the same amount of the simple elixir of that
substance, we will have four grains of the combined alkaloids, an unreasonable
quantity for a preparation of the character of an elixir.
     In consequence of examples similar to those above named, and which
demanded some regular plan of procedure, if such could be devised, we have for
many years attempted to systematize the matter, and our efforts have met with
some success.  In making compound elixirs, where it was possible, we have
represented in each fluidrachm the aggregate amount of alkaloids which would be
present were the several elixirs mixed together in equal quantities.  We believe
that, as a rule, under the conditions which confront us in the problem of
compound elixirs, physicians desire the associated action of smaller amounts of
the several ingredients rather than the full dose of each.  It is true that, for
obvious reasons, this rule cannot always be upheld, but where it has been
practicable we have endeavored to carry it out.
     The proportion of strychnine in the elixirs of commerce has never been
uniform, and even the men who seem to have made elixir formulae a special
consideration vary one from another.  Some use one grain of strychnine to
sixteen fluidounces of the finished elixir, which is the one-hundred and-twenty-
eighth part of a grain to each fluidrachm, while others use severally one-
hundredth, one-sixtieth, and one-fifty-first of a grain.  Strychnine is far too
violent and poisonous a substance for such a range of proportions, and in our
opinion it is to be regretted that, even though  ignoring elixirs as a class,
our Committee upon Revision of the Pharmacopoeia did not authorize some
proportion which pharmacists could adopt in order to further a uniformity in
these preparations.
     Since the foregoing was written the National Formulary has authorized the
making of elixirs containing strychnine compounds in which one and one-quarter
grains of strychnine or of the strychnine salt are used in preparing sixteen
fluidounces of the elixir. Thus the authoritative proportion of strychnine has
been accepted approximately as the one-hundredth part of a grain to each
fluidrachm. In accordance therewith, in the body of the present edition of our
work on elixirs, the strychnine proportions in these elixirs are made to conform
to that strength.
     In making solutions of strychnine we usually convert it into a soluble
salt by means of acetic acid.  This forms a combination which in our experience
is best for associating strychnine with the entire list of substances which are
used to form the compound elixirs containing that alkaloid.  In some instances
the elixir in which the strychnine is to be placed has an alkaline reaction and
may decompose the salt; yet as the elixir contains some alcohol, and besides has
as a menstruum a solvent action different from that of water, it does not
necessarily follow that precipitation of the alkaloid will result.  However, it
is well to be cautious, and should a white, flocculent precipitate occur in
elixirs containing strychnine and which are alkaline in reaction, this
precipitate should be considered as dangerous and care exercised in dispensing
the elixir.
     In all the formulae where it is practicable we have introduced fluid
extracts instead of crude drugs.  This we consider advantageous for several
reasons, and fluid extracts may now be readily obtained to represent nearly
every plant used in medicine.  In many instances we object to certain drugs
under any consideration as the foundation of an elixir, and we have not
hesitated to criticize freely where the medicinal principles of the drug cannot
in our opinion be extracted or held in solution by the elixir.  However, if the
menstruum precipitates these principles from the fluid extract, it will probably
refuse to extract them from the crude drug, so that little if any advantage will
accrue in this direction from the use of the crude material.  We vary from the
methods employed by the committee appointed by the American Pharmaceutical
Association regarding the manner of mixing a tincture or fluid extract with the
menstruum.  If they are mixed directly together, precipitation results
immediately of much of such substances as are insoluble in the resultant
menstruum.  This produces a preparation which pharmacists and physicians refuse
to accept as an elixir.  True it is that these substances may be inert and that
filtration will separate them; yet the nature of the case is such that
filtration is only of temporary benefit, and even after several filtrations the
precipitation continues.  This trouble may be overcome to a great extent by
following the old process for making medicated waters, that is, by triturating
the fluid extract or tincture with magnesium carbonate, or with some other inert
powder if this substance is inadmissible, after which the simple elixir is added
and the mixture filtered.  By this process the insoluble materials are separated
at once, which is preferable to having the precipitation extend over days and
weeks.  Besides, the surface exposure caused by the trituration of the fluid
extract with the magnesium carbonate may favor the saturation of the menstruum
in the manner it does with essential oils under the same conditions.
     We have adopted a simple elixir which practically agrees with that of our
Pharmacopoeia (1883), although the method of manipulation differs somewhat.  We
object to elixirs which contain cinnamon, caraway, coriander, cardamom, or
cloves (unless used as aromatic elixirs), for many persons are prejudiced
against certain of these substances, and it is not unusual to meet persons with
whom the flavor of one of the foregoing is unbearable.  The simple elixir
should, in our opinion, be as nearly as possible pleasant to the majority of
persons, and we have no record of an objection to the flavor of lemon or of
orange, separate or combined.  Our formula for simple elixir, therefore,
associates these substances in such proportion as to produce a very acceptable
and grateful combination, the orange preponderating.
     When we consider that in the pages which follow we find processes for
making 271 different elixirs, we are confronted with the fact that these elixirs
alone would fill the shelves of an ordinary storeroom.  The problem to be
considered by pharmacists is that of finding the most convenient method which
will enable them to dispense these combinations in a creditable manner without
overstocking their shelves.  This has been and is a consideration of pressing
importance to the writer, and the trouble has been overcome, to a very great
extent, by adopting a system which would permit the preparation of compound
elixirs from those more simple, and in studying how to make the different
elixirs from compatible ingredients.  In many instances this is impossible
without injury to the product, and yet, in the large majority of cases,
pharmacists are able to extemporize and supply most demands from their stock of
standard elixirs, which are those in most common use.
     Some elixirs may be called permanent, but this term cannot be applied to
the larger number.  Associations of the alkaloids in acid solution only, or
elixir of pyrophosphate of iron in alkaline solution, or others under certain
conditions, might possibly be claimed as fairly permanent.  However, the elixir
of pyrophosphate of iron will decompose if exposed to the sunlight or even
strongly diffused daylight, and it may gelatinize after a time if of acid
reaction, while alterations will follow with the solutions of the alkaloids. 
Few organic bodies are permanent in solutions containing far more alcohol than
is permissible with the modern elixir, and in consequence many elixirs will
alter in appearance, or even precipitate, if they contain the substances which
are supposed to be present.
     In reviewing the formulae which follow, the reader may criticize the
number of different elixirs presented.  This, we admit, is a fault, but one
beyond our control, and some of the elixirs are seldom used, some are simply
curiosities.  This country is large, however, and if the reader will regard a
certain preparation as one which should have been omitted, he may be surprised
to learn that in other localities it is very much in demand.  Time and again we
have been surprised on learning of the local consumption of substances we
scarcely thought commanded a sale, and, upon the other hand, we have excited
comment over certain preparations scarcely known to others and yet made by us in
quantities.  In connection with this phase of the subject, we feel that our
position is not that of a judgea position occupied by certain committeesbut
that, as our subject is "elixirs," it is our duty to consider them as a body.
     We desire to call attention to the fact that it was our first intention to
give the several processes and criticisms which have been made regarding each
elixir introduced during the past twenty years. This proved to be impracticable,
and we were forced to draw the line sharply.  If the reader will select as an
example any one of the prominent elixirs, and hunt up the reviews, different
formulae, etc., regarding it which have appeared in the various pharmaceutical
journals and the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association during
that period, he will doubtless be astonished at the magnitude of the matter; and
when it is remembered that recent years have given us several new and worthy
pharmaceutical journals, and that elixirs are more or less considered by all of
them, it will be seen that to give an intelligent and faithful resume in a work
like ours would be impracticable.
     Our aim has been to credit those who introduced special combinations and
the journals whose pages we consulted to find their records, and yet it is
likely that unintentional oversights and errors have been made.
     In conclusion, we may say that we trust pharmacists will find our formulae
to present some advantages over a line of compilations, for they are not simply
abstracts from the work that others have done.

ELIXIR FORMULAE

1. ELIXIR ADJUVANS.

     Fluid extract of orange peel,           1/2 fluidounces
     Fluid extract of coriander,           1/4 fluidounces
     Fluid extract of caraway,           1/4 fluidounces
     Fluid extract of wild-cherry bark,     1 fluidounces
     Fluid extract of licorice root,     1  1/2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces
     Alcohol,                 1/2 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluid extracts and evaporate them to one-half of their bulk, at a
temperature not exceeding 150 F.  Triturate the remaining liquid in a capacious
mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy
mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. 
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol. The ingredients for this elixir were
named in the Druggists' Circular, 1879.
     The National Formulary presents a process for making this preparation in
which the crude drugs are percolated and the elixir prepared from the percolate.

2. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF AMMONIUM.

     Bromide of ammonium,     640 grains.
     Simple elixir,          15 1/2 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the bromide of ammonium in the simple elixir, and filter if
necessary.
     Each teaspoonful of the finished elixir contains five grains of bromide of
ammonium.
     The National Formulary directs the addition of thirty grains of citric
acid to sixteen fluidounces of this elixir.

3.  ELIXIR ALOES.
(COMPOUND TINCTURE OF ALOES.)

     Aloes,     3 troy ounces
     Saffron     3 troy ounces
     Tincture myrrh,     2 pints.

     Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder and macerate in the alcohol for
fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day; then filter.
     ("The New Dispensatory," London, 1770.)

4.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM.

     Valerianate of ammonium          256 grains.
     Simple elixir, ammonia water, carmine solution,
     of each a sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the valerianate of ammonium in twelve fluid ounces of simple
elixir, and bring this to the measure of sixteen fluidounces by the addition of
a sufficient amount of simple elixir. Then cautiously add ammonia water until in
slight excess, and color with solution of carmine until decidedly red.  Each
fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir represents two grains of
valerianate of ammonium, the same as that adopted by the American Pharmaceutical
Association, 1873.
     Valerianate of ammonium, especially if the valerianic acid is in excess,
has, to most persons, a very offensive odor.  This the addition of the ammonia
water tends to subdue, but wherever valerianate of ammonium is free, or in
aqueous solution, the odor will remain.  If dissolved in officinal alcohol,
however, it is scarcely apparent, but such a solution will not conform to our
modern "elixir."  The addition of water to the alcoholic solution revives the
odor.
     The history of this elixir is of interest, since it was among the first of
the popular elixirs introduced, and has retained its prestige to the present
day.  In an essay by Mr. Trovillo H. K. Enos, read before the Maryland College
of Pharmacy, 1861, the statement is made that "a preparation known as Pierlot's
solution of valerianate of ammonium has long been used among physicians in
Philadelphia; but the disagreeable taste and odor of the solution having been
found objectionable to patients, the pharmacists have been led to suggest some
mode of disguising both, and presenting the preparation in an agreeable form for
administration, without materially altering its effect; and the form of an
elixir has been adopted." Mr. Enos then gave his formula, which was as follows:

     Valerianic acid,     .     1 fluidrachm.
     Simple syrup,          1 fluidounces.
     Extract of sweet orange peel,     2 fluidrachms.
     Alcohol,          1 fluidounces.
     Orange-flower water,          1/2 fluidounces.
     Distilled water, carbonate of ammonium,
           of each a sufficient quantity.

     Dilute the valerianic acid with one-half fluidounces of water, and
neutralize it with the carbonate of ammonium, add the alcohol, having previously
mixed it with the fluid extract of orange peel, and then add the other
ingredients and filter.
     In 1863 Mr. Joseph Roberts accepted a query in the American Pharmaceutical
Association, reading as follows: "What is the best formula for Elixir of
Valerianate of Ammonium which shall be nearly free from valerianic odor, and
elegantly aromatized ?"  Having failed to reply, in 1865 Mr. J. Faris Moore gave
a formula to the Society which in substance agreed with that of Mr. Enos, the
principle being the formation of valerianate of ammonium from valerianic acid,
by saturating it with carbonate of ammonium.  At this day valerianate of
ammonium is employed instead of the valerianic acid.

     SOLUTION OF CARMINE.This preparation has been used some twelve years by
the writer, in preference to any "tincture" of cochineal. The fat in cochineal
causes such preparations to putrefy in warm weather; and to extract the fat by
means of ether from the powdered cochineal, previous to tincturing, is expensive
and tedious. The term "tincture of cochineal" is scarcely appropriate as applied
to the aqueous solutions made of cochineal, cream of tartar, and alum, and, as
the object is simply to secure a coloring matter, the term might with equal
propriety be applied to our solution of carmine, made as follows:
     Carmine, No. 40,               60 grains.
     Distilled water, glycerin, of each,     4 fluidounces.
     Ammonia water,               a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the carmine and triturate with the water, gradually adding ammonia
water until the carmine disappears and a dark-red liquid, free from insoluble
matter, remains.  To this add the glycerin, and mix.  Should this solution ever
become murky, a little ammonia water will restore its transparency.
     Solution of carmine is necessarily alkaline, and cannot be employed to
color acid liquids.  For all neutral or alkaline solutions it is admirable, and
for soda-water syrups is far preferable to aniline red.

5. ELIXIR of VALERIANATE of AMMONIUM with CINCHONIDINE .
 (ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA WITH CINCHONIDIA.)

     Cinchonidine (alkaloid),           128 grains.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium,
            acetic acid,          of each a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the cinchonidine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount
sufficient to effect its solution, and add to this liquid elixir of valerianate
of ammonium until the product measures sixteen fluidounces.  If not of acid
reaction, add cautiously acetic acid until it will redden blue litmus paper, and
filter if necessary.
     (All of the combinations of valerianate of ammonium and the alkaloids in
elixir form should have an acid reaction. It is, therefore, to be understood,
with the formulae of this character which follow, that in case the elixir is
alkaline it must be acidulated with acetic acid.)
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, and one grain of cinchonidine as the acetate of
that alkaloid.

6. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH CINCHONIDINE AND CINCHONINE.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA WITH CINCHONIDIA AND CINCHONIA.)

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
          with cinchonidine,           8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
         with cinchonine,           8 fluidounces.
     Mix them together.

      Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, and a half grain each of cinchonidine and
cinchonine as acetates of these alkaloids.

7.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM W/CINCHONIDINE,CINCHONINE AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA WITH CINCHONIDIA, CINCHONIA, AND STRYCHNIA. )

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
       with cinchonidine,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
       with cinchonine,          8 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient
to effect its solution, and add the elixirs, having previously mixed them
together.  Filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one-half grain each of cinchonidine and cinchonine,
and one hundredth grain of strychnine. The alkaloids are in form of acetates.

8.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM W/CINCHONIDINE AND PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA WITH CINCHONIDIA AND IRON.)

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
         with cinchonidine,     .     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
         with pyrophosphate of iron,     8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one grain of pyrophosphate of iron, and one-half
grain of cinchonidine, the latter in the form of an acetate.
     CAUTION.Excess of acid will cause the pyrophosphate of iron to
gelatinize.  Excess of alkali precipitates the cinchonidine.  The elixir should
be made as nearly neutral as possible, and remain transparent, by the use of
acetic acid and ammonia water, as indicated by litmus paper.

9.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH CINCHONIDINE, PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON,
       AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR of VALERIANATE of AMMONIA, CINCHONIDIA, IRON, AND STRYCHNIA )

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
        with cinchonidine,           8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
        with pyrophosphate of iron,     8 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient
to effect its solution, and add this to the elixirs, having previously mixed
them together. Use precautions suggested with elixir of valerianate of ammonium
with cinchonidine and pyrophosphate of iron.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one-half grain of pyrophosphate of iron, one-half
grain of cinchonidine, and one-hundredth grain of strychnine.  The alkaloids
exist as acetates.

10.  ELIXIR of VALERIANATE of AMMONIUM with CINCHONINE.
 (ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA WITH CINCHONIA.)

     Cinchonine (alkaloid),           128 grains.
     Elixir of valerianate of Ammonium
          diluted acetic acid,           of each a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the cinchonine in a mortar with the acetic acid in amount
sufficient to effect its solution, and mix with this elixir of valerianate of
ammonium until the product measures sixteen fluidounces.  If not of acid
reaction, add cautiously acetic acid until it will redden litmus paper, and
filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, and one grain of cinchonine as the acetate of that
alkaloid.

11. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH CINCHONINE AND PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
 (ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA, CINCHONIA, AND IRON.)

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium with
        cinchonine,                8 fluidounces
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium with
        pyrophosphate of iron,          8 fluidounces

   Mix them together. Use precautions suggested with elixir of valerianate of
ammonium with cinchonidine and pyrophosphate of iron.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one grain of pyrophosphate of iron, and one-half
grain of cinchonine as the acetate of that alkaloid.

12.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM W/CINCHONINE, PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON,
     AND STRYCHNINE
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA, ClNCHONIA, IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of valerianate of ammo      nium with cinchonine
        and pyrophosphate of iron,          16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient
 to effect its solution, and then add the elixir of valerianate of ammonium with
 cinchonine and pyrophosphate of iron.  Observe precautions suggested with
elixir of valerianate of ammonium with cinchonidine and pyrophosphate of iron.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one grain of pyrophosphate of iron, one-half grain
of cinchonine, and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.  The alkaloids exist
as acetates.  This preparation should be as nearly neutral in reaction as it is
possible to make it.

13.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH CINCHONlNE AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA, CINCHONIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of valerianate of ammo-
        nium with cinchonine,          16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,                1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in sufficient amount
 to effect its solution, then add the elixir of valerianate of ammonium with
cinchonine, and filter if necessary.  If not of acid reaction, acidulate
slightly with acetic acid.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one grain of cinchonine, and one-hundredth of a
grain of strychnine as the acetate of that alkaloid.

14.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
 (ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA AND IRON.)

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium,     8 fluidounces.
         "     pyrophosphate of iron,      8 fluidounces.
     Mix them together.

     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
each of valerianate of ammonium and of pyrophosphate of iron.  It should have a
slightly alkaline reaction.

15. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM AND QUININE.

     Quinine (alkaloid),          32 grains.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium,
           diluted acetic acid,          of each a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the quinine in a mortar with a sufficient amount of the acetic
acid to effect its solution, then mix the liquid with enough elixir of
valerianate of ammonium to produce sixteen fluidounces.  If not of acid
reaction, add acetic acid until it will change the color of blue litmus paper to
 red.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, and one-fourth grain of quinine as the acetate of
that alkaloid.
     The National Formulary directs that thirty-two grains of hydrochlorate of
quinine be dissolved in sixteen fluidounces of elixir of valerianate of
ammonium.  Thus each fluidrachm contains one-fourth grain of hydrochlorate of
quinine.  In former editions of our work we directed that one hundred and
twenty-eight grains of quinine be used in making sixteen fluidounces in this
elixir, but in the present edition, recognizing the authority of the National
Formulary, have adopted the foregoing strength.

16.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE AND CINCHONIDINE
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA WITH QUINIA AND CINCHONIDIA.)

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
        and quinine,               8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
        and cinchonidine,          8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.

     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one-half grain of cinchonidine, and one-eighth grain
 of quinine, as acetates of these alkaloids.

17. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM W/QUININE, CINCHONIDINE, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA, QUINIA, CINCHONIDIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammo-
        nium with quinine and cinchonidine,     16 fluidounces.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in sufficient amount
 to effect its solution, then mix with the elixir of valerianate of ammonium
with quinine and cinchonidine.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one-half grain of cincho-nidine, one-eighth grain of
 quinine, and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.  The alkaloids are in the
form of acetates.

18. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE, CINCHONIDINE,
     PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA, QUINIA, CINCHONIDIA, IRON, AND STRYCHNIA. )

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
        with quinine and pyrophosphate
        of iron,               8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
        with cinchonidine and pyro-
        phosphate of iron,          8 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in sufficient
quantity to effect its solution, and add this to the elixirs, having previously
mixed them together; and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one-fourth grain of cincho-nidine, one-eighth grain
of quinine, one grain of pyrophosphate of iron, and one-hundredth grain of
strychnine.  The alkaloids exist as acetates.  This elixir should be as nearly
neutral as it is possible to make it.

19.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE AND CINCHONINE.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA WITH QUINIA AND CINCHONIA.)

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
        and quinine,               8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
        with cinchonine,          8 fluidounces.
     Mix them together.

     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one-half grain of cinchonine, and one-eighth grain
of quinine, as acetates of these alkaloids.

20.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE,CINCHONINE, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA, QUINIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
     with quinine and cinchonine,          16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient
 to effect its solution, and add this to the elixir of valerianate of ammonium
with quinine and cinchonine.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one-eighth grain of quinine, one-half grain of
cinchonine, and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.  The alkaloids exist as
acetates.

21.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE AND PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA WITH QUINIA AND IRON. )

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
        with quinine,               8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
        with pyrophosphate of iron,     8 fluidounces.
     Mix them together.

     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one-half grain of pyro-phosphate of iron, and one
eighth grain of quinine.  Observe the precautions suggested with elixir of
valerianate of ammonium with cinchonidine and pyrophosphate of iron.

22.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE, PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON, AND
     STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA, QUINIA, IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium  with quinine
        and pyrophosphate of iron,          16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,                1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient
 to effect its solution, and mix this liquid with the elixir of valerianate of
ammonium with quinine and pyrophosphate of iron, and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one-half grain of pyrophosphate of iron, one-eighth
grain of quinine, and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine, the alkaloids
being in the form of acetates.  Observe the precautions suggested with elixir of
 valerianate of ammonium with cinchonidine and pyrophosphate of iron.

23.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium
        and quinine,          16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,          2 1/2 grains.
     Acetic acid.          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient
 to effect its solution, and mix this liquid with the elixir of valerianate of
ammonium.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, one-fourth grain of quinine, and one-fiftieth of a
grain of strychnine as an acetate of that alkaloid.

24.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH STRYCHNINE.

     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium,     16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid.               a sufficient quantity.
     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in sufficient amount
 to effect its solution, and mix this with the elixir of valerianate of
ammonium.  If not of acid reaction, add enough acetic acid to change blue litmus
 paper to red.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of valerianate of ammonium, and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine as an
acetate of that alkaloid.

25. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIUM WITH SUMBUL.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF AMMONIA WITH MUSK ROOT.)

     Fluid extract of sumbul,          2 fluidounces.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium,      14 fluidounces
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of sumbul in a capacious mortar with carbonate
 of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add
the elixir of valerianate of ammonium, stirring well, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents two grains of
valerianate of ammonium. and according to this formula each fluidrachm should
contain the active principles of seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of
sumbul.  But, as a matter of fact, that amount will not dissolve in that
quantity of the menstruum, the excess remaining in the filter paper.

26.  ELIXIR ANTIGLAIREUX.
(ELIXIR FOR GLENORRHEA.  LAVOLLEY'S PURGATIVE ELIXIR.
TINCTURA PURGGAS.  TINCTURA JALAPAE COMPOSITAS.)

     Jalap,     .     8 troyounces.
     Turpeth root,          1 troyounce.
     Scammony,          2 troyounces.
     Diluted alcohol,          96 fluidounces.

     Mix the drugs and reduce them to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the
 diluted alcohol for ten days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day; then
filter.
(American Journal of Pharmacy, 1881.)

27. ELIXIR ANTIGOUTTEUX DE VILLETTE.
(DE VILLETTE'S GOUT ELIXIR.)

     Brown cinchona bark,      25 troyounces.
     Poppy petals,           12 1/2 troyounces.
     Sassafras bark,           6 1/4 troyounces.
     Guaiac resin,           12 1/2 troyounces.
     Jamaica rum,           62 1/2 pints.
     Syrup of sarsaparilla,      39 pints

     Mix the drugs and reduce them to a coarse powder, and macerate in the
previously mixed Jamaica rum and syrup of sarsaparilla for fourteen days,
stirring the mixture thoroughly each day; then filter.
(HAGER.See New Remedies, 1878.)

28.  AROMATIC ELIXIR.

     Fluidextract of sweet orange peel,     1/2 fluidounces.
     Fluidextract of coriander seed,.......... 1/4 fluidounces.
     Fluidextract of angelica seed,     1/4 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces.
     Carmine color, carbonate of magnesium,     of each a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluid extracts and triturate them in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, add solution
 of carmine, enough to give a nice red color.
     This elixir is used as a flavor, and may be used instead of simple elixir
if desired, as it is acceptable to many persons.  The Newark Pharmaceutical
Association (1871) recommended a formula on which the above is based.
     The National Formulary commends a formula in which aromatic spirits is the
 base, practically as follows:
     Aromatic spirits,          16 fluidounces.
     Syrup and water, of each,      24 troyounces
     Purified talcum,          1 troyounce.

     Mix the aromatic spirits with the syrup, then add the water and the
purified talcum.  Shake well together and agitate occasionally for several days.
Finally filter the mixture.  This elixir is of the same strength as that
recommended by the National Formulary.

29.  ELIXIR OF IODIDE OF ARSENIC AND MERCURY.

     Solution of iodide of arsenic and mer-
        cury (Donovan's solution),          256 minims.
     Simple elixir,               a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the solution of iodide of arsenic and mercury with enough simple
elixir to produce sixteen fluidounces.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir contains two minims of solution of
iodide of arsenic and mercury.  Dose, one fluidrachm (teaspoonful), increased
carefully to two or three fluidrachms, if necessary.

30.  ELIXIR OF BEEF.

     Extract of beef,          256 grains.
     Simple elixir,          15 fluidounces.
     Distilled water,           1/2 fluidounces.

     Triturate the extract of beef with the water, then gradually add the
simple elixir, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of extract of beef.  This formula was based on one given in the Druggists'
Circular, l878.

31. ELIXIR OF BEEF AND CITRATE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF BEEF AND IRON.)

     Elixir of beef,          16 fluidounces.
     Water,           1/2 fluidounces.
     Citrate of iron and ammonium,....128 grains.
     Dissolve the citrate of iron in the water, add the elixir of beef, and
filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of extract of beef and one grain of citrate of iron.
     This preparation is far from permanent. It deposits a precipitate by age,
which evidently results from the reaction between the chloride of sodium,
present in large amount in the beef extract, and the citrate of iron.  The
substitution; of chloride of iron for the citrate might prove advantageous. but
the demand is for an elixir of beef with citrate of iron.

32.  ELIXIR OF BEEF, IRON, AND CINCHONA.

     Elixir of beef with citrate of iron,     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of cinchona (alkaloidal),..........8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of
extract of beef and represents two grains of officinal calisaya bark.

33.  ELIXIR OF BLACK HAW.
(ELIXIR OF VIBURNUM PRUNIFOLIUM.)

     Fluid extract of viburnum pruni-
        folium,               2 fluidounces.
     Compound tincture of cardamom,     l fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               13 fluidounces.

     Mix the liquids, allow them to stand a few days, and filter.  Each
fluidrachm represents about seven and one-half grains of black haw.

ELIXIRS CONTAINING AMMONIO-CITRATE OF BISMUTH.

     Ammonio-citrate of bismuth is not always entirely soluble in water, owing
to the fact that it parts with ammonia and assumes a partially insoluble
condition.  It is well, therefore, to remember that a little ammonia water will
facilitate the complete solution of ammonio-citrate of bismuth, unless the
decomposition has proceeded beyond a certain limit.
     In consideration of the above fact, elixirs containing excess of acids are
incompatible with it, and the same is true of solutions of salts of the mineral
acids.  However, excess of acetic acid does not decompose it immediately, and
salts of acetic acid are compatible with solutions of ammonio-citrate of
bismuth, which is one reason why in elixir formulae we use acetic acid in making
solutions of alkaloids.
     If an elixir containing ammonio-citrate of bismuth in connection with
pepsin is not alkaline in reaction, or at least neutral, decomposition of the
salt results, followed by precipitation.  If it is alkaline, destruction of the
pepsin follows.
     If an elixir containing ammonio-citrate of bismuth and salts of the
alkaloids is alkaline, the alkaloids are likely to precipitate; and if acid,
precipitation results from decomposition of the bismuth salt. These
incompatibles can only be associated by carefully avoiding any considerable
excess of either acid or alkali.  The alkali to be used in order to effect
neutralization is ammonia water, and the acid, acetic acid.
     We call attention occasionally to the above facts, in connection with
special combinations which we are forced to consider, and we trust that the
repetition will be excused, as we prefer to repeat rather than omit a word of
warning where it may be necessary.

34.  ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH.
(ELIXIR OF AMMONIO-CITRATE OF BISMUTH. ELIXIR OF BlSMUTH.)

     Ammonio-citrate of bismuth,          256 grains.
     Simple elixir, ammonia water,        of each a sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the ammonio-citrate of bismuth in twelve fluid-ounces of simple
elixir, adding cautiously enough ammonia water to render the solution slightly
alkaline, then bring to the measure of sixteen fluidounces by the addition of a
sufficient quantity of simple elixir.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir represents two grains
of ammonio citrate of bismuth, and is the same in strength as that adopted by
the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875. During warm weather the ammonia
escapes to a greater or less extent from solutions of ammonio-citrate of
bismuth; hence the addition of the ammonia water in order to insure a perfect
solution.  Should this elixir become cloudy from escape of ammonia, the addition
of a little ammonia water will restore its transparency.  It is incompatible
with acids and salts of the mineral acids.  The first formula brought to our
attention, for an elixir of bismuth, was by Mr. Wm. C. Bakes in the American
Journal of Pharmacy, 1867.

35. ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF AMMONIO-CITRATE OF BISMUTH AND PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.)
(ELIXIR OF BISMUTH AND IRON.)
(ELIXIR OF BISMUTH FERRATED.)
(ELIXIR OF IRON AND BISMUTH.)

     Elixir of citrate of ammonium and
        bismuth,               8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,.     8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each teaspoonful of the finished elixir contains one grain each of
ammonio-citrate of bismuth and of pyrophosphate of iron.  This elixir should
have an alkaline reaction.
.
36.  ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH WITH PEPSIN
(ELIXIR OF AMMONIO-CITRATE OF BISMUTH AND PEPSIN.)
(ELIXIR OF BISMUTH AND PEPSIN.) 
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND BISMUTH.)

     Elixir of citrate of ammonium and
        bismuth,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pepsin,          8 fluidounces.
     Mix them together, and if of acid reaction, cautiously add ammonia water
until it is neutral or slightly alkaline.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
each of pepsin and citrate of ammonium and bismuth.
     This preparation, we believe, is indebted for its value to the bismuth
salt and alcohol.  We doubt if the pepsin retains any of its digestive power,
and in connection with the subject we direct attention to our remarks concerning
pepsin.

37.  ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH WITH PEPSIN AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF AMMONIO-CITRATE OF BISMUTH, PEPSIN, AND STRYCHNIA.) 
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, BISMUTH, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of citrate of ammonium and
        bismuth with pepsin,     16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,          1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,          a sufficient, quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in sufficient amount
to effect its solution, and then add the elixir of citrate of ammonium and
bismuth with pepsin.  If of acid reaction, cautiously add ammonia water until it
is neutral or even slightly alkaline.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
each of pepsin and ammonio-citrate of bismuth, and one-hundredth grain of
strychnine.
     The remarks we have made concerning strychnine and pepsin, in their
respective positions, will apply with pertinence to this preparation; and
although this elixir embraces a mass of pharmaceutical incongruities, it is
among the most popular elixirs used by physicians.  Were it not for this fact,
the combination would not deserve a position.

38.  ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH WITH STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF AMMONIO-CITRATE OF BlSMUTH AND STRYCHNIA.)
(ELIXIR OF BlSMUTH AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of citrate of ammonium with
        bismuth,          16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,          1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar, cautiously adding acetic acid until
the alkaloid is dissolved, then add the elixir of citrate of ammonium with
bismuth.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of citrate of ammonium and bismuth, and about one-hundredth of a grain of
strychnine as the acetate of that alkaloid.
     Strychnine is incompatible with alkaline solutions, and if a precipitate
should occur while the elixir has an alkaline reaction, care must be taken that
this precipitate is thoroughly mixed with the liquid before each dose is
administered, inasmuch as the ammonio-citrate of bismuth is incompatible with an
acid, this elixir must have an alkaline or at least a neutral reaction. 
However, although one and one-fourth grains of strychnine refuse to dissolve in
sixteen fluidounces of water, it seems that the menstruum composing this elixir
has the property of holding in solution the strychnine, even though it (the
elixir) is alkaline, and thus the general incompatibility of the constituents is
overcome.

39.  BITTER ELIXIR.
(ELIXIR AMARUM.)

     Extract of buck-bean,          2 troyounces.
     Extract of orange peel,          2 troyounces.
Dissolve them in a mixture of
     Diluted alcohol,               16 troyounces.
     Peppermint water,               16 troyounces.
And add of
     Spirit of ether (Hoffman's anodyne),     1 troyounce.
     This formula is that of the German Pharmacopoeia, 1872.

40.  ELIXIR OF BLACKBERRY.

     Fluid extract of blackberry,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               1/2 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of blackberry in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one half
minims of fluid extract of blackberry.  A formula for this elixir, containing
blackberry root, cinnamon, and cloves, was suggested in the Druggists' Circular,
1880.

41. ELIXIR OF BOLDO.

     Fluid extract of boldo,      4 fluidounces
     Simple elixir,          12 fluidounces
     Alcohol,          2 fluidounces
     Carbonate of magnesium,     a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of boldo with carbonate of mag-nesium
sufficient to produce a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir,
filter, and add the alcohol.
     Verne recommended an elixir of boldo in the Pharmaceutical Journal and
Transactions, but, as the virtues of boldo are imperfectly extracted by an
aqueous liquid, we do not admire such a preparation. According to this formula
each fluidrachm should contain the active principles of seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of boldo.  But, as a matter of fact, that amount will
not dissolve in that quantity of the menstruum, the excess remaining in the
filter paper.

42.  ELIXIR OF BRANDY.
     Nutmegs,               40 grains.
     Cardamom,               60 grains.
     Rhubarb,               60 grains.
     Lavender flowers,               60 grains.
     Cinnamon,               60 grains.
     Ginger,               60 grains.
     Powdered extract of licorice,          360 grains.
     Brandy,               16 fluidounces.
     Water,               8 fluidounces.

     Mix the drugs and reduce them to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the
mixed brandy and water for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each
day; then filter.  It may also be prepared by percolation.
     This elixir was once sold as a proprietary remedy, under the name "Dr.
Butler's Elixir of Brandy."  We are informed, however, by a writer in the
Druggists' Circular (1858), that Dr.Butler was a "fictitious character," coined
by a couple of young men who made a sale for "Dr. Butler's Medicines."

43.  ELIXIR OF BUCHU.

     Fluid extract of buchu,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.
     Triturate the fluid extract of buchu with carbonate of mag-nesium in
sufficient amount to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple
elixir, and filter.
     According to this formula each fluidrachm should contain the active
principles of seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of buchu.  But, as a
matter of fact, that amount will not dissolve in that quantity of the menstruum,
the excess remaining in the filter paper.  In our opinion, fluid extract of
buchu should be made with alcohol of the specific gravity 0.820, and the
addition of water lessens its value as a menstruum for extracting buchu and
retaining its desirable principles, in proportion to the amount of water added.
Hence it is that the elixir of buchu is inferior to an equivalent amount of the
fluid extract of buchu used in making it, providing the fluid extract was
reputable.

44.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF BUCHU.

     Compound fluidextract of buchu,      4 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.
     Triturate the compound fluid extract of buchu with carbonate of magnesium
in sufficient amount to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple
elixir, and filter.
     This elixir is similar to that commended by the National Formulary, and is
of the same strength.

45.  ELIXIR OF BUCKTHORN.
(ELIXIR OF FRANGULA.)

     Fluid extract of frangula,          4 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               1 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract in enough magnesium carbonate to form a creamy
mixture, then add the simple elixir, and filter.  Each fluidrachm represents
fifteen grains of buckthorn.

46.  ELIXIR OF CAFFEINE.

     Caffeine,               128 grains.
     Dilute hydrobromic acid, U. S. P.      32 grains.
     Syrup of coffee,               4 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir, enough to make,     16 fluidounces.

     Triturate the caffeine in a mortar with the dilute hydrobromic acid and
sufficient simple elixir to dissolve it, then add the syrup, and lastly enough
simple elixir to make sixteen fluidounces.  This formula is similar to the one
commended by the National Formulary, and is of the same strength.

47.  ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF CALCIUM.

     Bromide of calcium,     640 grains.
     Simple elixir,          15.5 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the bromide of calcium in the simple elixir, and filter if
necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains five grains
of bromide of calcium.  This proportion was recommended by Robert W. Gardner,
1880.

ELIXIR OF IODO-BROMIDE OF CALCIUM.

     This is private property.  Under the above name a preparation has been
introduced and extensively advertised, and through courtesy to the proprietors
we refrain from interfering.

48.  ELIXIR OF HYPOPHOSPHITE OF CALCIUM.

     Hypophosphite of calcium,     256 grains.
     Citric acid,          30 grains.
     Simple elixir,     ............enough to make l 6 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the hypophosphite of calcium in the simple elixir, add the
citric acid, and filter.  Each fluidrachm contains two grains of hypophosphite
of calcium.

49. ELIXIR OF LACTOPHOSPHATE OF CALCIUM.

     Lactophosphate of calcium,          128 grains.
     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces.
     Lactic acid, syrupy,          1 fluidrachm.

     Mix the simple elixir with the lactic acid, and dissolve therein the
lactophosphate of calcium, and filter.  Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir
contains one grain of lactophosphate of calcium.  This elixir corresponds in
strength to that of previous editions of our work, and also to that of the
National Formulary.  In our opinion, the process commended herein is preferable
to the others, and the product is practically identical.  The substance sold in
commerce by chemical manufacturers under the name lacto-phosphate of calcium,
although not a definite salt, is probably as effective therapeutically as the
pharmaceutical preparation made by dissolving either phosphate of calcium in
lactic acid, or lactate of calcium in phosphoric acid.

50. ELIXIR OF MONO-BROMATED CAMPHOR.

     Mono-bromated camphor,     128 grains.
     Simple elixir,          15 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,          1 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the mono-bromated camphor in the alcohol, and stir this solution
slowly in the simple elixir.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of mono-bromated camphor.  Mr. T. Mundy, of Paris, has recommended an elixir of
mono-bromated camphor containing nine grains in fifteen fluidrachms, but the
amount of alcohol is very great. However, as alcohol is the best common solvent
for this substance, we prefer a simple alcoholic solution to an elixir, as the
water present in the elixir favors precipitation.

51. ELIXIR CAMPHOR MONO-BROMATED, COMPOUND.

     Butyl chloral               3 grains.
     Essence of cinnamon,          1 1/2 drachms.
             Dissolve the butyl chloral in the essence of cinnamon,and add
     Tincture of gelsemium,          10 minims.
     Simple (red) elixir,          1 1/2 fluidrachms.
     Simple syrup,
        a sufficient quantity to make.....     1 fluidounces.

     Then triturate two grains of mono-bromated camphor and dissolve in the
above liquid.
     According to the Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, this elixir is
often prescribed in Paris.
     Each fluidrachm contains about one-third grain of butyl chloral, one
minim of tincture of gelsemium, and one-fourth grain of mono-bromated camphor.

52. COMPOUND CATHARTIC ELIXIR.

     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of rhubarb,          2 fluidounces.
     Sulphate of magnesium,          2 troyounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of rhubarb in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, having previously dissolved in it the magnesium
sulphate; stir well, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of rhubarb, and contains seven and one-half grains of
magnesium sulphate.
     In the year 1876 an anonymous correspondent furnished the Druggists'
Circular with a mixture for making the above elixir.  It was much more complex
and presented no advantages over our formula.
     The National Formulary makes this elixir of a mixture of senega,
podophyllum, leptandra, jalap, and Rochelle salt.  It is an imperfect
pharmaceutical preparation.

53.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CELERY.

     Take of fluid extracts of celery, coca, kola, and black haw bark, of each
one fluidounces.  Mix the fluid extracts, add two fluidounces of alcohol and
enough simple elixir to make sixteen fluidounces.  After standing a few days,
with occasional agitation, filter the mixture.  This elixir is of the same
strength as that of the compound elixir of celery of the National Formulary. 
It deposits a sediment and is not a perfect preparation.

54.  ELIXIR OF WILD CHERRY.

     Fluid extract of wild cherry,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               1/2 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of wild cherry in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir will contain the medicinal
principles of seven and one-half grains of wild- cherry bark.

55. ELIXIR OF WILD CHERRY WITH CHLORIDE OF IRON AND CITRATE OF AMMONIUM.
(ELIXIR OF WILD CHERRY AND CHLORIDE OF IRON.)
(FERRATED ELIXIR OF WILD CHERRY.)

     Elixir of wild cherry,          16 fluidounces.
     Tincture of chloride of iron,          1/2 fluidounces.
     Solution of citrate of ammonium,     1/2 fluidounces.

     Mix the tincture of chloride of iron with the solution of citrate of
ammonium, and add this to the elixir of wild cherry.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains seven and
one-half minims of fluid extract of wild cherry, and about two minims of
tincture of chloride of iron.
     This formula is based upon Mr. J. Creuse's experiments with "tasteless
chloride of iron," and to him we are indebted for the improved process (citrate
of ammonium mixed with chloride of iron) for associating iron with vegetable
astringents.  Should the foregoing produce an inky liquid, increase the amount
of solution of citrate of ammonium.  Since fluid extracts vary, the proportion
of our formula is sometimes incorrect.

56.  ELIXIR OF HYDRATE OF CHLORAL.
(ELIXIR OF CHLORAL.)

     Chloral hydrate,          640 grains.
     Simple elixir,          15 1/2 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the chloral hydrate in the simple elixir, and filter if
necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains five grains
of hydrate of chloral, which is one-half the amount present in syrup of chloral
of the British Pharmacopoeia.

57. ELIXIR OF CIMICIFUGA.
(ELIXIR OF MACROTYS. )

     Fluid extract of cimicifuga,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               1/2 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of cimicifuga in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir should contain seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of cimicifuga.  But, as a matter of fact, that amount
will not dissolve in that quantity of the menstruum, the excess remaining in
the filter paper.  The remarks we make concerning elixir of grindelia robusta
apply with equal pertinence to this.

58. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CIMICIFUGA.
(COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MACROTYS. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF BLACK COHOSH.)

     Fluid extract of cimicifuga,          4 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of wild-cherry bark,     2 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of licorice,          1 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of senega,          1 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of ipecac,           1/2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               13 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluid extracts together and evaporate the mixture to three
fluidounces.  Triturate this in a capacious mortar, with carbonate of magnesium
in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple
elixir, stirring well, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents (subject to remarks
concerning elixir of cimicifuga) fifteen minims of fluid extract of cimicifuga,
together with seven and one half minims of fluid extract of wild-cherry bark,
about four minims each of fluid extract of licorice and senega, and nearly two
minims of fluid extract of ipecac.

59.  CLAUDER'S ELIXIR

     Carbonate of potassium,          1 troyounce.
     Chloride of ammonium,          1 troyounce.
     Elder-flower water,          1 1/2 pints.

          Dissolve and add

     Aloes,          1 troyounce.
     Myrrh,          1 troyounce.
     Saffron,          2 drachms.

     Macerate for twenty-four hours, and filter.Pideret.

60. ELIXIR OF COCA.

     Fluid extract of coca,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               1/2 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of coca in a capacious mortar with carbonate
of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add
the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the
alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of coca.

61. ELIXIR OF COCA AND GUARANA.

     Fluid extract of coca,          2 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of guarana,          2 fluidounces.
     Purified talcum,               240 grains.
     Simple elixir,               12 fluidounces.

     Triturate the mixed fluid extracts with the purified talcum, gradually
add the simple elixir, shaking well together, and agitate occasionally for
twenty-four hours, then filter
     Each fluidrachm represents seven and one-half grains each of coca and
guarana.

62. ELIXIR OF COLUMBO.

     Fluid extract of columbo,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of columbo in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of columbo.

63. ELIXIR OF COLUMBO, CITRATE OF IRON, AND RHUBARB.
(ELIXIR OF COLUMBO, IRON, AND RHUBARB.)

     Citrate of iron,                1/2 troyounce.
     Solid extract of columbo,           1/8 troyounce.
     Solid extract of rhubarb,           1/8 troyounce.
     Distilled water,               4 fluidounces.
     Brandy,               4 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               4 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the citrate of iron in the distilled water and triturate the
solid extracts with this liquid until they are dissolved.  Filter the solution
and mix the filtrate with the brandy and simple elixir.
     This mixture was given through the Druggists' Circular, 1873, by Mr. W.
Turpin Swentsell.

64.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CORYDALIS.

     Fluid extract of corydalis,          1 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of stillingia,          1 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of prickly-ash berries,      1/2 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of blue flag-root,     1/2 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               2 fluidounces.
     Iodide of potassium,          384 grains.
     Simple elixir, carbonate of magnesium,     of each a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the mixed fluid extracts in a capacious mortar with carbonate
of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add
simple elixir enough to produce sixteen fluidounces, stirring well, and filter.
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol, and dissolve the iodide of potassium
in the liquid.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents the proportion which the
menstruum will dissolve of about four minims each of fluid extract of corydalis
and of stillingia, about two minims of fluid extract of prickly-ash berries,
and two minims of fluid extract of blue flag-root; together with three grains
of iodide of potassium.
     We have little faith in the power of the above menstruum to dissolve the
desirable principles of the drugs, corydalis, perhaps, excepted; but the elixir
may be therapeutically worthy, since iodide of potassium alone is valuable.
     The above formula is nearly identical with that offered by the joint
committee of the National College of Pharmacy and the Medical Society of the
District of Columbia.

65. ELIXIR of COTO.

     Fluid extract of coto,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of coto with magnesium carbonate until a
creamy mixture results, then gradually add the simple elixir, and filter.  Each
fluidrachm of this elixir represents such an amount of seven and one-half
grains of coto as will dissolve in the liquid.

66. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CHLOROFORM.
(CHLOROFORM PAREGORIC OF DR. HARTSHORNE.)

     Chloroform,               1 1/2 fluidounces.
     Tincture of opium,          1 1/2 fluidounces.
     Tincture of camphor,          1 1/2 fluidounces.
     Aromatic spirit of ammonia,          1 1/2 fluidounces.
     Best brandy,               2 fluidounces.

     Mix together.  Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir contains eleven and
one-fourth minims of each of the medicinal ingredients.  It should be dispensed
cautiously.
     This preparation was originally used under the name "chloroform paregoric
of Dr. Hartshorne," and the formula was published in the book of formulae
issued in 1867 by the joint committee of the Medical and Pharmaceutical
Associations of the District of Columbia.  In former editions of our work this
compound was entitled "Elixir of Chloroform."

67. ELIXIR CHLOROFORMIQUE OF BOUCHUT.
(BOUCHUT'S ELIXIR OF CHLOROFORM.)

     Chloroform,          8 minims.
     Alcohol,          64 minims.
     Simple elixir,          225 minims.

     Mix in the order given.  Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir contains
one and three-fifths of a minim of chloroform.
(Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1862.)

68. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CRAMP BARK.
(COMPOUND ELIXIR OF VIBURNUM OPULUS.)

     Fluid extract of cramp bark,          1 1/2 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of beth root,          2 1/2 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of aletris,          1 1/4 fluidounces.
     Compound elixir of taraxacum,          11 fluidounces.

     Mix them and allow the mixture to stand a few days, and then filter.

69. ELIXIR OF CROTON.

     Croton chloral hydrate,          128 grains.
     Distilled water,               2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Dissolve the croton chloral hydrate in the water, and add the simple
elixir (Druggists' Circular, 1875).  Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the
finished elixir contains one grain of croton chloral hydrate.

ELIXIRS OF CALISAYA OR CINCHONA BARK
AND ITS ALKALOIDS.

     These include the most popular elixirs, and which are prescribed most
freely by physicians.  The original "cordial elixir of calisaya" contained all
of the principles of the bark which were soluble in the menstruum used in
making it, and, as a simple elixir of calisaya, is preferred by many physicians
at the present day.  When combina-tions of calisaya bark and the various iron
preparations were introduced, a demand was created for an elixir of calisaya
which could be mixed with certain iron salts without precipitation or inky
disco-loration, and this was followed by the introduction of "detannated elixir
of calisaya," which would answer this purpose.  However, in making the
detannated elixir the natural combination of the alkaloids is destroyed and the
cincho-tannic acid is separated, and we prefer to use the alkaloids of calisaya
direct.  The use of the alkaloids, by pharmacists, instead of the bark, will
certainly give a more definite preparation, as variation in quality is thus
overcome, and we do not know that the name "elixir of calisaya" is very
inappropriate under these conditions.  Hence it is that we direct the "elixir
of calisaya from the alkaloids" in this work; but if the operator prefers, the
detannated elixir can be substituted.
     It must be remembered that the alkaloids of calisaya are almost insoluble
in a slightly alkaline or neutral aqueous menstruum, and, as a consequence, the
elixir of these alkaloids should have an acid reaction.  However, some outside
combinations, especially with pyrophosphate of iron and ammonio-citrate of
bismuth, will not admit of a strong acid reaction, and the operator should
endeavor to have these associations as nearly neutral as it is possible and
retain the several ingredients in solution.  With a little experience the
skillful pharmacist will learn to associate many of these incongruities; but
there is no doubt that oft times the filter paper is the real pharmacist, when
some of the incompatibles we might name are supposed to be associated in a
transparent, permanent condition, and that upon the filter paper may be found
the bulk of the medicinal ingredients.

PREPARATIONS OF ALKALOIDS.

     In following the directions for making elixirs by this work, it will be
observed that we refer to alkaloid cinchonidine, and alkaloid quinine, as well
as alkaloid cinchonine.  The last is in general use, but the others must often
be prepared extemporaneously.  In reviewing the processes which have been
heretofore recommended, we find consid-erable trouble in manipulation.  The
plan of our Pharmacopoeia (1870) is that of dissolving the sulphate of the
alkaloid in water, by means of sulphuric acid, and then precipitating with
ammonia water, after which the precipitated alkaloid is washed with water.  In
following this process we find a very bulky, amorphous precipitate, and which
requires a large amount of water before it can be thoroughly freed from ammonium
sulphate.  Again, when we attempt to dry this precipitate, if the weather is
moderately warm, it runs together, agglutinates, and finally forms a
transparent, horn-like mass which adheres closely to the paper.  In order to
overcome these troubles, the writer has devised the following process, which
yields an alkaloid which answers every purpose required by the class of
preparations under consideration:

ALKALOID QUININE OR ALKALOID CINCHONIDINE.

     Sulphate of quinine or sulphate of
         cinchonidine,          1 ounce.
     Distilled water,          32 fluidounces.
     Ammonia water,          1/2 fluidounces.

     Mix the ammonia water with the distilled water, and having placed the
sulphate of the desired alkaloid in a mortar, gradually triturate it with a
sufficient amount of the liquid, so as to form a thin, creamy mixture, then add
the remainder of the mixed waters.  Permit this to stand half an hour, and
transfer to a filter paper; then, after the precipitate has drained, return it
to the mortar, and mix it again with a liquid composed of

     Distilled water,          32 fluidounces.
     Ammonia water,           1/4 fluidounces.

     Permit this mixture to stand for half an hour, and then transfer it to a
muslin strainer, squeeze. it until the liquid is expressed, and then dry it by
hanging it in the atmosphere, without, however, removing the strainer.
     The foregoing process offers several advantages over the old, not the
least being the ready production of an alkaloid in a porous and finely divided
form.  If the strainer is permitted to remain during the process of drying, the
liquid carries the dissolved sulphate of ammo-nium to the surface, as it
evaporates, and deposits it upon the muslin.
     This process is often followed by the writer with regard to other
precipitates which contain coloring matters and impurities that ordinary
washing seems not to separate.  By spreading them in thin layers upon muslin,
and pressing a sheet of muslin upon their surface, the impurities are carried
by the liquid to the surface.

70.  ELIXIR OF CALISAYA (OR CINCHONA.  See No. 71).
(CORDIAL ELIXIR OF CALISAYA.  ELIXIR OF BARK.)

     Calisaya bark,          4 troyounces
     Fresh orange peel,     2 troyounces.
     Ceylon cinnamon,          1 troyounce.
     Coriander seed,          1 troyounce.
     Fennel seed,           1/4 troyounce.
     Caraway seed,           1/4 troyounce.
     Cardamom seed,           1/4 troyounce.
     Cochineal,           1/4 troyounce.
     Brandy,          40 troyounces.
     Alcohol,          16 troyounces.
     Water,          56 troyounces.
     Simple syrup,          40 troyounces..

     Reduce the orange peel to a pulp by concussion in an iron mortar, and mix
the pulp with the remainder of the drugs, having previously reduced them to a
coarse powder.  Mix the brandy, alcohol, and water, and moisten the powder with
an amount sufficient of this menstruum to prepare it for percolation. Pack the
moistened powder in a suitable percolator, and extract it by percolation with
the remainder of the menstruum.  Lastly, mix this percolate with the simple
syrup.
     This formula was furnished the American Journal of Phar-macy, January,
1859, by Mr. Alfred B. Taylor, excepting that the manipulation has been slightly
modified by us.  This process furnishes a very palatable preparation, and at one
time it was popular under the name "cordial elixir of calisaya." However, a
slight precipitate occurs in it after standing, and, as a rule, pharmacists
prefer an elixir made of the alkaloids.  In our opinion, this elixir is often
the preferable elixir of calisaya, but out of respect to the demands of trade,
and combinations to be made, we shall recognize under compounds of calisaya an
elixir made with cinchona alkaloids, as follows:

71.  ELIXIR OF CINCHONA.

     The National Formulary uses the title Elixir of Cinchona instead of Elixir
of Calisaya.  That preparation is somewhat different from the typical elixirs
that have been fashionable under the name elixir of calisaya, and we therefore
give to the elixir of cinchona a separate position, although the distinction is
not technically correct. The formula of the National Formulary is essentially
as follows:

     Tincture of cinchona, U.S.P.,          2 1/2 fluidounces.
     Aromatic spirits,               2 fluidounces.
     Syrup,               6 fluidounces.
     Purified talcum,               120 grains.
     Water,     ........................enough to make 16 fluidounces.

     The liquids are to be mixed together, and, after having stood for twenty-
four hours, the purified talcum is to be added and shaken therewith.  The
mixture is then to be filtered.  Each fluidounces represents about fourteen
grains of yellow cinchona.

72.  ELIXIR OF CALISAYA ALKALOIDS.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA.)
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA BARK ELIXIR OF BARK.)

     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces.
     Quinine (alkaloid),          12 grains.
     Cinchonine (alkaloid),          6 grains.

     Mix the alkaloids, and triturate them in a mortar with one fluidounces of
simple elixir, and then gradually add acetic acid in amount sufficient to effect
their solution; then add the remainder of the simple elixir.  Each fluidrachm
(teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains alkaloids sufficient to represent
four grains of officinal calisaya bark.  The preparation is that adopted by the
American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875.  The elixir has a distinct, bitter
taste, and we have reason to believe that any substance which will overcome the
bitterness will do so at the expense of the alkaloids, rendering them insoluble.
Various plans have been recommended, from time to time, for detannating calisaya
 bark, usually by means of hydroxide of iron, first suggested by Mr. Meier, of
New York, in 1867.  These processes are tedious, and the product presents
little, if any, advantage over a simple solution of the alkaloids.  For this
reason we consider this formula a practical substitute for "detannated elixir
of calisaya," which follows.

73.  DETANNATED ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK.
(DETANNATED ELIXIR OF CINCHONA BARK.)
(DETANNATED ELIXIR OF BARK.)

     Calisaya bark,          24 troyounces.
     Curaoa orange peel,     16 troyounces.
     Coriander,          4 troyounces.
     Cardamom,          1 1/2 troyounces.
     Ceylon cinnamon,          3 troyounces.
     Anise,          1 troyounces.
     Cocoa (Baker's),          8 troyounces.

     Reduce to a moderately fine powder; displace with a mixture consisting of
one part, by measure, of alcohol and three parts of water, until two and one-
half gallons of percolate are obtained.
     Meanwhile, prepare hydrated sesquioxide of iron from six pints of solution
of tersulphate of iron, according to the Pharmacopoeial process, measure it, and
add to every four measures one measure of alcohol; then add of this sufficient
to the percolate, obtained as above, to deprive it of its cincho-tannic acid. 
The absence of the latter is readily ascertained by the addition of a drop of
tincture of chloride of iron to a filtered portion of the liquid in operation,
which should not be colored by such addition.  Should coloration result, the
intensity or faintness will serve as a guide to the further quantity of hydrated
sesquioxide of iron necessary to completely detannate the preparation.  As soon
as this result is obtained, strain the mixture upon a muslin strainer, and when
the liquid ceases to pass, wash the residue upon the strainer, with sufficient
of a mixture of one measure of alcohol to three of water to make the strained
liquid measure five gallons.  Now triturate together oil of orange one-half
fluidounces, carbonate of magnesium four troyounces.  When thoroughly mixed,
incorporate it with the strained liquid obtained as above, agitate well, and
filter through paper; express the filter between muslin, filter the expressed
liquid, and mix with the previous filtrate, in which dissolve fifteen pounds
avoirdupois of sugar.  If necessary, filter the elixir thus obtained; but
simple straining will usually answer.
     The above formula is that of Prof. C. Lewis Diehl, as presented to the
Louisville College of Pharmacy, January 16th, 1872.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir represents about two
grains of calisaya bark of the quality employed by the operator.
     The first record we can find of detannating the percolate from calisaya
bark by means of hydrated sesquioxide of iron, for the purpose of making an
elixir, was the communication to the Druggists' Circular, 1867, by Mr. Meier,
of New York.  He used solution of ferric chloride to prepare the hydroxide. 
Detannated elixir of calisaya was introduced to supply a solution of the
alkaloids of calisaya which could be mixed with iron salts without precipitation
or inky discoloration.  We are sure that pharmacists, generally, will meet with
better success, regarding the quality if the product, by using an elixir
directly from the alkaloids; hence we favor that form of "elixir of calisaya"
in this work. We cannot say that there is actually much difference in the
finished preparation, since the natural combination of the alkaloids is broken
when the cincho-tannic acid is removed, and all must admit that the calisaya
barks of commerce are uncertain in quality.  The elixir of the alkaloids is of
definite strength.

74. DESLAURIER'S ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND COFFEE.

     Yellow cinchona bark,          2 1/2 troyounces.
     Brown cinchona bark,          1 troyounce.
     Browned (slightly) coffee,          2 troyounces.
     Sugar,               12 1/2 troyounces
     Sherry wine,               32 troyounces.
     Citric acid,               150 grains

     Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and mix all the above-named
ingredients.  Allow the mixture to macerate for a few days in a warm location,
then bring it to a boil, cool and filter it.  Dissolve in the filtrate ten and
one-half ounces of sugar, and add two fluidounces of alcohol.  The above is
taken from New Remedies, 1878, and is known as elixir Deslaurier's toni-
febrifuge au quinquina et caf.

75. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA WITH LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA WITH LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.)
(ELIXIR OF LACTOPHOSPHATE OF CALCIUM WITH CALISAYA.)

     Elixir of Calisaya (alkaloidal),     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of lactophosphate of calcium,     8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half
grain of lactophosphate of calcium, and represents two grains of calisaya.

76. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND CHLORIDE OF IRON WITH AMMONIUM CITRATE.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND CHLORIDE OF IRON.)
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA AND CHLORIDE OF IRON.)

     Elixir of calisaya,          15 fluidounces.
     Solution of citrate of ammonium,     1/2 fluidounces.
     Tincture of chloride of iron,          1/2 fluidounces.

     Mix the solution of citrate of ammonium with the tincture of chloride of
iron, and add the elixir of calisaya.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains about two
minims of tincture of chloride of iron, and represents nearly four grains of
calisaya.  The addition of the solution of citrate of ammonium prevents
discoloration of mixtures of this elixir, and substances containing vegetable
tannates. To the fact that this mixture could accomplish the aforenamed result
we are indebted to Mr. J. Creuse, who has written several interesting articles
on the subject, and we refer the reader to the back numbers of the Druggists'
Circular and Journal of Pharmacy, if particularly interested in the subject.

77. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, CITRATE OF IRON, AND BEEF.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, AND BEEF.)
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON AND BEEF. )

     Elixir of beef with citrate of iron,     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of calisaya (alkaloidal),     8 fluidounces.
     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of extract of beef, one-half grain of citrate of iron, and represents two
grains of officinal calisaya.
     The remarks concerning elixir of beef and citrate of iron may be applied
to this preparation.

78.  ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND CHLORIDE OF IRON WITH AMMONIUM CITRATE AND GENTIAN.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, AND GENTIAN.)

     Elixir of calisaya,          8 fluidounces.
     Tincture of chloride of iron,          1/4 fluidounces.
     Solution of citrate of ammonium,     1 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of gentian,          1/4 fluidounces.
     Distilled water, carbonate of magnesium,     of each a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of gentian in a mortar with carbonate of
magnesium in amount sufficient to form a thick paste, and then gradually add
eight fluidounces of distilled water, filter, and bring the filtrate to the
measure of seven fluidounces by addition of distilled water.  Mix the solution
of citrate of ammonium with the tincture of chloride of iron, and add to the
gentian filtrate, and then add the elixir of calisaya.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains about one
minim each of tincture of chloride of iron and of fluid extract of gentian, and
represents about two grains of calisaya.
     The remarks applied to elixir of calisaya and chloride of iron with
ammonium citrate, are applicable to this preparation.
     The National Formulary prepares this substance from tincture of citro-
chloride of iron.  The product is similar to that produced by our formula.

79.  ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, CITRATE OF IRON, BEEF, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, BEEF, AND STRYCHNIA.)
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON, BEEF, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of calisaya, citrate of iron,
         and beef,          16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,          1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in sufficient
amount to effect its solution; then add the elixir.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of extract of beef, one-half grain of citrate of iron, one-hundredth grain of
strychnine, and represents two grains of calisaya.  It is not a permanent
preparation, for explanation of which assertion see our remarks on elixir of
beef with citrate of iron.

80.  ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND PROTOXIDE OF IRON.)
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK AND FERROUS CITRATE.)
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA AND PROTOXIDE OF IRON.)

     Sulphate of iron, crystallized,     256 grains.
     Bicarbonate of sodium,          200 grains.
     Citric acid, distilled water, elixir of calisaya bark
          (alkaloidal),          of each a. sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the sulphate of iron and the bicarbonate of sodium separately,
each in sixteen fluidounces of cold, freshly distilled water, and mix the
solutions.  Pour the mixtures into a bottle, which must be filled to the stopper
 (using more distilled water if necessary), and permit it to rest for twenty-
four hours.  Decant the clear solution and refill the bottle with freshly
distilled water, shaking well, and permit it to stand as before.  After twenty-
four hours decant the clear solution, pour the residue upon a fine muslin
strainer and squeeze the liquid from it.  Dissolve the precipitate by
trituration in a mortar, with citric acid in sufficient amount, and then add
enough elixir of calisaya bark to make sixteen fluidounces, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of citrate
of protoxide of iron an amount which is equivalent to two grains of crystallized
sulphate of iron, and it represents about three grains of calisaya bark.
     The name (elixir of protoxide of iron) is a misnomer, if applied to a
preparation like this, and all the processes we have seen give a solution of a
salt of protoxide of iron.  This fact has been repeatedly noticed in the
Druggists' Circular and other journals, and such authorities as Mr. Creuse,
Prof. Diehl, and Prof. Oldberg have called particular attention to the misnomer.
Notwithstanding all of which, we find physicians, and even pharmacists, insist
on using the term, and we therefore place it among our synonyms.

81. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, PROTOXIDE OF IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.)
(ELIXIR OF BARK, PROTOXIDE OF IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.)
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, FERROUS CITRATE, AND STRYCHNIA.)
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA AND CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON.)

     Elixir of calisaya with citrate of
        protoxide of iron,          16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar, cautiously adding acetic acid until
it is dissolved, then mix with the elixir of calisaya and citrate of protoxide
of iron.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of citrate
of protoxide of iron an amount which is equivalent to two grains of sulphate of
iron and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine, and represents about three
grains of calisaya bark.  This preparation is unstable.

82.  ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.)
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK AND IRON.)
(ELIXIR OF BARK AND IRON.)
(FERRATED ELIXIR OF CALISAYA.)

     Elixir of calisaya (alkaloidal),     14 fluidounces.
     Distilled water,               2 fluidextracts
     Pyrophosphate of iron,          256 grains.

     Dissolve the pyrophosphate of iron in the distilled water, add the elixir
of calisaya, and filter if necessary.  If not neutral in reaction, bring it to
a neutral condition by addition of either acetic acid or ammonia water.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of pyrophosphate of iron and represents about four grains of officinal: calisaya
bark. The proportion is that recommended by the American Pharmaceutical
Association, 1875.
     In 1862 Mr. James T. Shinn published (American Journal of Pharmacy) a
process for making the above elixir, employing crude materials upon the
principle of Mr. Taylor's elixir of calisaya.  In speaking of it Mr. Shinn uses
the following language: "Among the pharmaceutical novelties recently brought to
the notice of physicians, this preparation of iron, cinchona, and brandy is one
of the most agreeable, and possibly may prove very popular with patients."  The
result proves Mr. Shinn's surmise to have been correct, although the original
preparations have been replaced with those more pleasing to the eye.

83. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND CITRATE OF
      AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, AND BISMUTH.)
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON, AND BISMUTH.)
(ELIXIR OF BARK, IRON, AND BISMUTH.)
(FERRATED ELIXIR OF BARK AND BISMUTH.)

     Ammonio-citrate of bismuth,          128 grains.
     Distilled water,               2 fluidounces.
     Elixir of calisaya bark with iron,
                                  a sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the ammonio-citrate of bismuth in the distilled water, cautiously
adding ammonia water if necessary; then add elixir of calisaya bark with iron,
sufficient to make sixteen fluidounces.  Should a precipitate follow, the
addition of either ammonia water or acetic acid, as the case may demand, to
render the liquid neutral, will redissolve it.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of ammonio-citrate of bismuth, about two grains of pyrophosphate of iron, and
represents nearly four grains of officinal calisaya bark.

84.     ELIXIR Of CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON, CITRATE OF AMMONIUM
     AND BISMUTH, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, STRYCHNIA, AND BISMUTH.)
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON, STRYCHNIA, AND BISMUTH.)
(ELIXIR OF BARK, IRON, STRYCHNIA, AND BISMUTH.)
(FERRATED ELIXIR OF BARK, STRYCHNIA, AND BISMUTH.)

     Elixir of calisaya bark with pyrophosphate of iron, citrate
     of ammonium, and bismuth,          16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the strychnine and dissolve it in a sufficient amount of acetic
acid, and mix this with the elixir.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of
ammonio-citrate of bismuth, about two grains of pyro-phosphate of iron, and one-
hundredth of a grain of strychnine, and represents nearly four grains of
officinal calisaya bark.

85. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND LACTOPHOSPHATE OF CALCIUM.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, AND LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.)
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON, AND LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.)

     Elixir of calisaya with iron,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of lactophosphate of lime,     8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half
grain each of lactophosphate of lime and pyrophosphate of iron, and represents
two grains of officinal calisaya.  An elixir similar to the above, which is
also about the same as "Wheeler's Elixir," was introduced by Mr. G. F. Butler
in 1881.
     The National Formulary uses lactate of calcium, phosphoric acid, and
elixir of cinchona and iron.  The strength of the elixir, however, conforms to
that of our publication.

86.  ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND PEPSIN.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, AND PEPSIN.)
(ELIXIR OF BARK, IRON, AND PEPSIN.)
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON, AND PEPSIN.)

     Elixir of calisaya bark with pyro-
          phosphate of iron,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pepsin,               8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together and neutralize, or render slightly alkaline, if
necessary, by means of ammonia water.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
each of pyrophosphate of iron and saccharated pepsin, and represents about two
grains of officinal calisaya bark.

87. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK, IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.)
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.)
(ELIXIR OF BARK, IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.)
(FERRATED ELIXIR OF BARK WITH STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of calisaya bark with pyro-
         phosphate of iron,          16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the strychnine, dissolve it in a sufficient amount of acetic acid,
and add the elixir of calisaya bark with pyrophosphate of iron, and, if
necessary, ammonia water to neutralization.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of pyrophosphate of iron, about one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine, and
represents four grains of officinal calisaya bark.  This preparation is that
recommended by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875.
     In former editions of this book (see page 17) the strength of this elixir
was given as one-fiftieth of a grain of strychnia in each fluidrachm.  In order
to confirm the work of the National Formulary committee we have changed the
proportion to one-hundredth of a grain.

88. ELIXIR OF CINCHONA AND HYPOPHOSPHITES.

     Hypophosphite of calcium,          128 grains.
     Hypophosphite of sodium,          128 grains.
     Citric acid,               30 grains.
     Water,               2 fluidounces.
     Elixir of cinchona,
                                 enough to make 16 fluidounces.

     The citric acid and hypophosphites are to be dissolved in the water, and
the solution mixed with enough elixir of cinchona to make sixteen fluidounces,
and then filtered.  Each fluidrachm contains one grain each of the
hypophosphites of calcium and sodium.  This formula is identical in strength
with that of the National Formulary.

89.  DETANNATED ELIXIR OF CINCHONA.

     Detannated tincture of cinchona,     2 1/2 fluidounces.
     Aromatic spirits,               2 fluidounces.
     Syrup,               6 fluidounces.
     Purified talcum,               120 grains.
     Water, enough to make          16 fluidounces.

     Mix the liquids, allow the mixture to stand twenty-four hours or longer,
then add the purified talcum.  Shake well together, and filter. Each fluidounce
represents fourteen grains of yellow cinchona.  This formula is similar to that
of the National Formulary, and the product is of the same strength.

90.  ELIXIR OR CINCHONINE.

     Cinchonine (alkaloid),          256 grains.
     Simple elixir, phosphoric acid (U. S. P., 1872),
                    of each a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the powdered cinchonine in a mortar with three fluidounces of
simple elixir, and dissolve it by the gradual addition of a sufficient amount
of phosphoric acid; then mix this solution with a sufficient amount of simple
elixir to make the whole measure sixteen fluidounces, and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of phosphate
of cinchonine an amount which is equivalent to two grains of cinchonine.

91.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATES OF CINCHONINE AND CINCHONIDINE.

     Mix equal amounts, by measure, of elixir of phosphate of cinchonine and
elixir of phosphate of cinchonidine.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir contains of phosphate of
cinchonidine an amount which is equivalent to one-half grain of cinchonidine,
and of phosphate of cinchonine an amount which is equivalent to one grain of
cinchonine

92. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATES OF CINCHONINE AND STRYCHNINE

     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Elixir of phosphate of cinchonine,     16 fluidounces.
     Phosphoric acid (U. S. P., 1872),
                                          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the powdered strychnine in a mortar with sufficient phosphoric
acid, gradually added, to effect its solution; then add the elixir of phosphate
of cinchonine and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of
phosphates of cinchonine and strychnine an amount which is equivalent to two
grains of cinchonine and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.

93.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONIDINE.
(ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONIDIA.) 
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONIDIA.)

     Cinchonidine (alkaloid),          128 grains.
     Simple elixir, phosphoric acid (U. S. P., 1872),
                                   of each a sufficient quantity.
     Powder the cinchonidine, and triturate it in a mortar with two fluidounces
of simple elixir.  When a smooth, creamy mixture results, continue the
trituration, and gradually add of phosphoric acid an amount sufficient to
dissolve the cinchonidine; then mix this solution with a sufficient amount of
simple elixir to make the whole measure sixteen fluidounces, and filter if
necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of phosphate
of cinchonidine an amount which is equivalent to one grain of cinchonidine.

94.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATES OF CINCHONIDINE, CINCHONINE, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONIDIA, CINCHONIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Strychnine,                    1 1/4 grains.
     Elixir of phosphates of cinchonidine
          and cinchonine,          16 fluidounces.
     Phosphoric acid (U. S. P., 1872),
                                      a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the powdered strychnine in a mortar with sufficient phosphoric
acid to effect its solution, then add the elixir of phosphates of cinchonidine
and cinchonine, and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of
phosphates of cinchonidine, cinchonine, and strychnine an amount which is
equivalent to one-half grain of cinchonidine, one grain of cinchonine, and one-
hundredth of a grain of strychnine.

95.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATES OF CINCHONIDINE AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONIDIA AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Elixir of phosphate of cinchonidine,     16 fluidounces.
     Phosphoric acid (U. S. P., 1872),
                                 a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the powdered strychnine in a mortar with sufficient phosphoric
acid to effect its solution; then add the elixir of cinchonidine, and filter if
necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of
phosphates of cinchonidine and strychnine an amount which is equivalent to one
grain of cinchonidine and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.

96. ELIXIR OF ACETATE OF CHINOIDINE.
(ELIXIR OF CHINOIDINE.)

     Chinoidine,          256 grains.
     Distilled water,          4 fluidounces.
     Acetic acid, simple elixir,     of each a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the chinoidine and dissolve it in the distilled water by the
addition of a sufficient amount of acetic acid, then add of simple elixir until
sixteen fluidounces are produced, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of chinoidine.

97.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF CHINOIDINE.

     Elixir of chinoidine,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of dandelion,          8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.  This agrees, practically, with the formula adopted by
the joint committee of the National College of Pharmacy and the Medical Society
of the District of Columbia.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of chinoidine and represents about four minims of fluid extract of dandelion.

98. ELIXIR OF BISULPHATE OF QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF SULPHATE OF QUINIA.)

     Sulphate of quinine,          128 grains.
     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces.
     Dilute sulphuric acid,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the sulphate of quinine with four fluidounces of simple elixir, and
add enough dilute sulphuric acid to effect its solution.  Then add the remainder
of the simple elixir, and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of sulphate of quinine.
     The addition of the excess of sulphuric acid actually produces bisulphate
of quinine; hence the term elixir of bisulphate of quinine is admissible,
although sulphate of quinine is employed.

99.  ELIXIR OF HYDROBROMATE OF QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF QUINIA.)

     Hydrobromate of quinine,          128 grains.
     Simple elixir, hydrobromic acid,     of each a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the hydrobromate of quinine with the simple elixir, and cautiously
add of hydrobromic acid an amount sufficient to effect its solution.  Filter,
if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of hydrobromate of quinine.
     The term often used for this substance"bromide of quinine" is incorrect,
 since alkaloids combine bodily with acids.

100.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF QUININE.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUINIA )

     Quinine (alkaloid),          128 grains.
     Simple elixir, phosphoric acid (U. S. P.,
                   1872),          of each a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the quinine, and triturate it in a mortar with two fluid-ounces of
simple elixir.  When a smooth, creamy mixture results, continue the trituration,
 and gradually add of phosphoric acid an amount sufficient to dissolve the
quinine.  Then mix this solution with a sufficient amount of simple elixir to
make the whole measure sixteen fluidounces.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of phosphate
of quinine an amount which is equivalent to one grain of quinine.

101.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF QUININE.

     Sulphate of quinine,          16 grains.
     Sulphate of cinchonidine,          8 grains
     Sulphate of cinchonine,          8 grains
     Aromatic elixir,                16 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the alkaloidal salts in the aromatic elixir by agitating them
together, and then filter.  Each fluidounce contains one grain of sulphate of
quinine and one-half grain each of the sulphates of cinchonidine and cinchonine.
The above formula conforms in strength with that of the National Formulary.

102.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE AND CINCHONIDINE.

     Elixir of phosphate of quinine and elixir of phos-
         phate of cinchonidine,          equal amounts by measure.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of phosphate
of quinine and of phosphate of cinchonidine an amount which is equivalent to
one-half grain each of quinine and of cinchonidine.

103. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE AND CINCHONINE.
(ELIXIR OF QUINIA AND CINCHONIA.)

     Elixir of phosphate of quinine and
        elixir of phosphate of cinchonine,
                    of each equal amounts by measure.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of
phosphate of quinine an amount which is equivalent to one-half grain of quinine,
 and of phosphate of cinchonine an amount which is equivalent to one grain of
cinchonine.

104.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATES OF QUININE, CINCHONIDINE, AND CINCHONINE.

     Elixir of phosphate of quinine, elixir of phosphate
       of cinchonidine, and elixir of phosphate of cinchonine,
                    of each equal amounts by measure.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of phosphate
of quinine an amount which is equivalent to one-third of a grain of quinine,
and of phosphate of cinchonidine an amount which is equivalent to one-third of
a grain of cinchonidine, and of phosphate of cinchonine an amount which is equal
to two-thirds of a grain of cinchonine.

105.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE WITH CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON WITH QUINIA.)
(ELIXIR OF QUININE AND FERROUS PHOSPHATE.)

     Elixir of protoxide of iron,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of phosphate of quinine,     8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half
grain of quinine, and as much citrate of protoxide of iron as corresponds with
one grain of sulphate of iron.  This elixir is not very stable.

106.     ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE WITH CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON AND
     STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF QUINIA AND PROTOXIDE OF IRON AND STRYCHNIA.)
(ELIXIR OF QUININE, FERROUS CITRATE, AND STRYCHNINE.)

     Elixir of phosphate of quinine
         with citrate of protoxide of iron,....16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar, cautiously adding acetic acid in
amount sufficient to effect its solution, and mix this with the elixir of
phosphate of quinine and citrate of protoxide of iron.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half
grain of quinine, as much citrate of protoxide of iron as corresponds with one
grain of sulphate of iron, and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.
     The term " protoxide of iron " is a misnomer.  See our remark concerning
elixir of calisaya bark with protoxide of iron.  This preparation is unstable.

107. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF QUINIA AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Quinine (alkaloid),          128 grains.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Simple elixir, phosphoric acid (U. S..P., 1872),
                         of each a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the powdered strychnine in a mortar with two fluidounces of
simple elixir, and dissolve by addition of a sufficient amount of phosphoric
acid.  Now add the quinine (previously powdered), and then, continuing the
trituration, gradually add of phosphoric acid an amount sufficient to dissolve
the quinine.  Then mix this solution with a sufficient amount of simple elixir
to make the whole measure sixteen fluidounces, and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of phosphate
of quinine and phosphate of strychnine an amount which is equivalent to one
grain of quinine and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.

1O8.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF QUININE.

     Valerianate of quinine,          128 grains
     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces.
     Valerianic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the valerianate of quinine in a mortar and gradually add the simple
elixir.  Then cautiously drop into the mixture valerianic acid sufficient to
render the liquid transparent, stirring continually, and filter if necessary.
     This formula conforms to that by Prof. C. Lewis Diehl (1872), read before
the Louisville College of Pharmacy.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of valerianate of quinine.

109. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF QUININE WITH STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF QUINIA AND STRYCHNIA )

     Elixir of valerianate of quinine,     14 fluidounces.
     Distilled water,               2 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,          1 1/4 grains.
     Valerianic acid,          a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the strychnine in a mortar and add the water, and then enough
valerianic acid to effect the solution of the strychnine.  Lastly, add the
simple elixir, and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) will contain about one grain of valerianate
of quinine and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.
     In former editions of our publication the proportion was one-fiftieth of
a grain of strychnine to each fluidrachm.  In this edition we conform to the
strength established by the National Formulary.

110.  ELIXIR OF COCA

     Fluid extract of coca,     2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,          14 fluidounces.
     Purified talcum,          120 grains.

     Triturate the fluid extract of coca with the purified talcum, and
gradually add the elixir, shaking well together and agitating occasionally for
twenty-four hours, then filter.
     Each fluidrachm represents seven and one-half grains of coca.

111. ELIXIR OF CURAOA.

     Syrup of Curaoa,          120 minims.
     Orris root, powdered,     30 grains.
     Deodorized alcohol,     4 fluidounces.
     Citric acid,          50 grains.
     Syrup,          8 fluidounces.
     Purified talcum,          120 Grains.
     Water,          enough to make 16 fluidounces.

     Mix the syrup of Curaoa with the alcohol, add the orris and purified
talcum and three fluidounces of water.  After twelve hours, agitating
occasionally, pour the mixture on a wetted filter, returning the first portions
of the filtrate until it runs clear, and follow the filtrate with enough water
to make eight fluidounces in all.  In this dissolve the citric acid, and finally
add the syrup.  This elixir is practically identical with that of the National
Formulary, the proportions of ingredients being the same.

112.  ELIXIR OF DANDELION.
(ELIXIR OF TARAXACUM.)

     Fluid extract of dandelion,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of dandelion in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of dandelion.

113.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF DANDELION.
(COMPOUND ELIXIR OF TARAXACUM. )

     Fluid extract of dandelion,          1 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of wild-cherry bark,     1 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of gentian,          1/8 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of bitter orange peel,     1/4 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of cinnamon,          1/8 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of licorice,          1/8 fluidounce.
     Powdered anise,               20 grains.
     Powdered caraway,               20 grains.
     Powdered coriander,          20 grains.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the mixed fluid extracts and powdered drugs in a capacious
mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy
mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and cover the
mixture and permit it to macerate an hour, then filter it.  This elixir was
devised by Prof. P. C. Candidus, of Mobile, and the formula was presented at
the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1869.  Prof. Candidus
stated that this elixir completely masks the bitter taste of sulphate of
quinine, and he recommended it as a vehicle for administering that substance.
Since one of the ingredients is licorice (see elixir of glycyrrhizin), we may
suppose that glycyrrhizin aids in overcoming the bitterness, and our remarks
concerning quinine and glycyrrhizin should be applicable to this elixir.  The
formula we present does not materially vary from that offered by Prof. Candidus,
 excepting in the substitution of fluid extracts for crude drugs.

114.  ELIXIR OF DANDELION WITH QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF TARAXACUM AND QUINIA.)

     Elixir of dandelion,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of phosphate of quinine,     8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains three and
one-fourth minims of fluid extract of taraxacum and one-half grain of quinine.
     In the year 1873 Mr. James W. Long furnished the American Journal of
Pharmacy with a process for making the foregoing preparation.

115.  DAFFY'S ELIXIR.
(DILLY'S DAFFY; ELIXIR OF HEALTH.New Dispensatory, 1770 )

     Senna,          4 ounces
     Guaiac wood,          2 ounces
     Elecampane root,          2 ounces
     Anise seed,          2 ounces
     Caraway seed,          2 ounces
     Coriander seed,          2 ounces
     Licorice root,          2 ounces
     Raisins,          8 ounces
     Diluted alcohol,          6 pints

     Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and mix them with the diluted
alcohol.  Then seed the raisins, chop them fine, add to the mixture, and
macerate fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day; then filter
(Supplement to London Pharmacopoeia, 1821).  A number of compounds have been
offered as "Daffy's Elixir," and from among them we have selected the preceding.

116. ELIXIR OF DAMIANA.

     Fluid extract of damiana,     2 1/2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,          16 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,          1/2 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,     a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of damiana in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents nine and one-half
minims of fluid extract of damiana.

117.  ELIXIR DEWBERRY COMPOUND.
(ELIXIR RUBI TRIVIALIS COMPOSITUM. )

     Dewberry root,          4 troyounces.
     Nutgalls,          4 drachms.
     Kino,               4 drachms.
     Cinnamon,          2 drachms.
     Cloves,          1 drachm.
     Capsicum,          10 grains.
     Tincture opium,          1 fluidounce.
     Essence peppermint,     1 1/2 fluidrachms.
     Brandy,          32 fluidounces.
     Sugar,          14 troyounces.

     Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and macerate in the brandy for
fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter, and
dissolve the sugar in the filtrate.
(New Remedies, 1880.)

118. ELIXIR OF EUCALYPTUS.

     Fluid extract of eucalyptus,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of eucalyptus with carbonate of magnesium in
sufficient amount to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple
elixir, and filter.  Lastly, mix the alcohol with the filtrate.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished preparation will contain such proportion
of seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of eucalyptus as will dissolve in
that amount of the menstruum.  In our opinion, the proper menstruum for
extracting the medicinal principles of eucalyptus is alcohol of specific
gravity 0.820.  The addition of water detracts from its value as a dissolving
medium, in proportion to the amount of water present.  Therefore elixir of
eucalyptus does not represent the fluid extract of eucalyptus employed in
making it.
     The proportions of eucalyptus upon which the foregoing elixir was based
will be found in the Druggists' Circular, 1877.

119. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF EUCALYPTUS.

     Fluid extract of eucalyptus,          2 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of licorice root,     1/2 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of wild cherry,          1/2fluidounce.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluid extracts, and triturate them in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, then filter.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents such an amount of seven
and one-half minims of fluid extract of eucalyptus as will dissolve in one
fluidrachm of the finished menstruum, and about two minims each of the fluid
extracts of licorice root and wild cherry.
     This preparation is intended as a pleasant mode of administering
eucalyptus; but the proportion of eucalyptus represented is uncertain, owing to
the fact that alcohol of specific gravity 0.820 is the proper solvent for the
medicinal principles of the leaves.  The formula we present is based upon
ingredients suggested in the Druggists' Circular, 1877.

120.  ELIXIR DE GlARUS.

     Myrrh,          90 grains.
     Aloes,          90 grains.
     Cloves,          180 grains.
     Nutmegs,          180 grains.
     Saffron,          480 grains.
     Cinnamon,          360 grains.
     Alcohol,          12 pints.

     Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, mix this with the alcohol, and
distill nine pints. Reserve this.

     Maidenhair,          4 troyounces.
     Licorice root,          1/2 troyounce.
     Figs,               3 troyounces.

     Infuse these in eight pints of boiling water, strain with expression, and
dissolve in the liquid twelve avoirdupois pounds of sugar.
     Equal parts, by weight, of this syrup and of the distilled spirit produce
" elixir de garus," according to the Supplement to the London Pharmacopoeia,
1821.
     This cumbersome and unscientific mixture, a relic of ancient polypharmacy,
is happily nearly obsolete.

121.  ELIXIR OF GENTIAN.

     Fluid extract of gentian,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of gentian in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of gentian.

122. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF GENTIAN.

     Compound fluid extract of gentian,     2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the compound fluid extract of gentian with carbonate of
magnesium in sufficient amount to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the
simple elixir, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm of this elixir represents the virtues of seven and one-
half minims of compound fluid extract of gentian.
     The National Formulary prepares this substance from the solid extract of
gentian.  The product is similar to that of our formula.

123. ELIXIR OF WILD GINGER.

     Fluid extract of wild ginger,          1 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of pleurisy root,     1/2 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of juniper berries,     1/2 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of anise (or powdered
          anise, 120 grains),          1/4 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of caraway (or pow-
          dered caraway, 120 grains),     1/4 fluidounce.
     Simple elixir               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the mixed fluid extracts in a capacious mortar, with carbonate
of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add
the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the
alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents about three and one-half
 minims of fluid extract of wild ginger, and one and three-fourths each of fluid
extract of pleurisy root and juniper berries.  This compound was suggested in
1877, by Mr. T. F. Thorworth, in the Druggists' Circular.

124.  ELIXIR OF GLYCYRRHIZIN.

     Ammoniacal glycyrrhizin,          128 grains.
     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the glycyrrhizin in the simple elixir, and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of ammoniacal glycyrrhizin.  This elixir is used to disguise the bitterness of
quinine; but it must be remembered that quinine will not dissolve in it, and
that quinine is precipitated by ammoniacal glycyrrhizin from solutions which
are not strongly acid.  Hence the reason for the tastelessness of quinine under
these conditions is largely due to its insoluble state.  Such mixtures should be
shaken before taking each dose, and under no condition should the mixture be
filtered, as the quinine will then remain on the filter paper.  The above
formula is that of Prof. Joseph P. Remington.

125. ELIXIR OF GLYCYRRHIZIN (AROMATIC)

     Coriander seed,          108 grains.
     Caraway seed,          108 grains.
     Cinnamon,          93 grains
     Star anise,          62 grains
     Tonka bean,          62 grains
     Canella,          31 grains
     Nutmeg,          31 grains
     Cloves,          31 grains
     Ammoniacal glycyrrhizin,     620 grains
     Oil of orange,          31 minims
     Alcohol,          16 fluidounces
     Distilled water,          16 fluidounces
     Simple syrup,          48 fluidounces

     Dissolve the oil of orange in the alcohol and add the distilled water,
and, having properly moistened the mixed and powdered drugs with a portion of
this menstruum, pack them in a suitable percolator and exhaust with the
remainder of it.  Dissolve the ammoniacal glycyrrhizin in a small amount of
boiling water, and add the syrup, mix this with the percolate previously
obtained, and then add of distilled water an amount sufficient to make the
whole measure eighty fluidounces.  Filter if necessary.
     This elixir was also devised by Prof. Joseph P. Remington, and is used as
a vehicle for the administration of quinine.  The remarks we have made
concerning "elixir of ammoniacal glycyrrhizin" may be applied with propriety to
this preparation.

126.  ELIXIR OF GRINDELIA ROBUSTA.
(ELIXIR OF GRINDELIA.)

     Fluid extract of grindelia robusta,     1 fluidounce.
     Simple elixir,               15 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of grindelia in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents such an amount of seven
and one-half minims of fluid extract of grindelia robusta as will dissolve in
the menstruum.  Grindelia robusta contains a resin which is precipitated by
water; hence we do not consider an elixir of this plant to be desirable.
     The National Formulary adopted the foregoing strength, and we confirm
that proportion.  In former editions of our publication we have used twice that
amount of grindelia.

127.  ELIXIR OF GUARANA.

     Fluid extract of guarana,          3 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               13 fluidounces
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of guarana in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir represents seven and
one-half minims of fluid extract of guarana, and is essentially the same as
that recommended by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875.  In the same
year Mr. George W. Kennedy, through the American Journal of Pharmacy, gave a
formula for this elixir, each fluidrachm of which represented fifteen grains of
guarana.
     The National Formulary authorizes the above proportion of guarana.  In
former editions of this work two fluidounces of the fluid extract were employed.
Each fluidrachm represents about eleven grains of guarana.

128.  ELIXIR OF GUAIACUM.

     Gum guaiacum (pulverized),          2 troyounces.
     Balsam of Peru,               2 fluidrachms.
     Oil of sassafras,               1 fluidrachm.
     *Volatile oily spirit,          1 pint.

     "Digest the gum guaiacum and balsam of Peru in the volatile oily spirit
for six days, in a closely stopped vial which is now and then shaken; afterwards
strain the tincture and add it to the essential oil of sassafras."
(Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, 1770.)
*Volatile oily spirit was made as follows: Take of
     Volatile sal-ammoniac,               8 ounces.
      Essential oil of rosemary,          1 1/2 ounces.
     Oil of amber,                         1 ounce.
     Essence of lemon peel,               1/2 ounce
     French brandy,                    1 1/2 gallons
     Draw off by distillation, in the heat of a water bath, near one gallon
(Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, 1770.)

129. ELIXIR ACIDUM HALLERI.
(HALLER'S ACID ELIXIR.)

     Sulphuric acid,          1 troyounce.
     Alcohol,          3 troyounces.

     Add the sulphuric acid to the alcohol, drop by drop, stirring constantly.
 Preserve the finished elixir in glass-stoppered bottles.  This is the process
of the German Pharmacopoeia, 1872, and is essentially the same as elixir acidum
Dippelii, which contains one part of sulphuric acid to two parts of alcohol.

130.  HELMONT'S ELIXIR.

(1)     Any fixed alkaline salt,     8 troyounces.
     Socotrine aloes,          1 troyounce.
     Saffron,          1 troyounce.
     Myrrh,          1 troyounce.
     Sal-ammoniac,          6 drachms
(2)  Mountain wine,          2 pints.

     Macerate without heat for a week or longer, then filter through paper.
(London Pharmacopoeia, 1770.)
(1) FIXED ALKALINE SALT.This was impure potassium carbonate.  To give the
definition of the New Dispensatory, 1770: "The ashes of most vegetables,
steeped or boiled,in water, give out to it a saline substance, separable in a
solid form by evaporating the water.  This kind of salt never preexists in the
vegetables, but is always generated during the burning. It is called fixt
alkaline salt."

2.Mountain wine of that day was Vinum album, Lond. Pharm., or Vinum album
Hispanicum, Edinb. Pharm.

131.  ELIXIR OF HELONIAS.

     Compound fluid extract of helonias,
                           2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,          14 fluidounce.
     Alcohol,          1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,     a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the compound fluid extract of helonias with carbonate of
magnesium in sufficient amount to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the
simple elixir, and filter.  Mix the alcohol with the filtrate.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished preparation will contain such proportion
of seven and one-half minims of compound fluid extract of helonias as will
dissolve in one fluidrachm of the menstruum.

132.  HOFFMANN'S STOMACH ELIXIR.
(ELIXIR VISCERALE HOFFMANNI.)

     Orange peel,          6 parts.
     Cassia bark,          2 parts.
     Carbonate of potassium,     1 part.
     Sherry wine,          50 parts

     Macerate for eight days, express, and strain.  To the colature add of
     Extract of gentian,          1 part.
     Extract of wormwood,          1 part.
     Extract of buck-bean,          1 part.
     Extract of cascarilla,          1 part.

     After repose, filter.
     It forms a clear liquid of a brown color, having a peculiar, aromatic
odor and a bitter taste.  It should be preserved in a well-closed vessel.
(German Pharmacopoeia, 1872.)

133.  ELIXIR OF HOPS.

     Fluid extract of hops,     2 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,           1/2 fluidounce.
     Simple elixir,          14 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,     a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of hops in a capacious mortar with carbonate
of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add
the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the
alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents such an amount of seven
and one-half minims of fluid extract of hops as will dissolve in the menstruum.
 The remarks concerning compound elixir of hops may be applied to this
preparation.

134. ELIXIR OF HOPS AND CHIRETTA.

     Fluid extract of hops,          1 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract chiretta,          1 fluidounce.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluid extracts, and triturate in a capacious mortar with carbonate
of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add
the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the
alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents such an amount of three
and one-half minims each of fluid extract of hops and of chiretta as will
dissolve in the menstruum used in its preparation. Our remarks regarding
compound elixir of hops may be applied with equal pertinence to this.

135. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF HOPS.

     Fluid extract of hops,          2 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of orange peel,           1/2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluidextracts, and triturate them in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents such an amount of seven
and one-half minims of fluid extract of hops as will dissolve in the menstruum.
     The ingredients for the above mixture were named by the Druggists'
Circular, 1876. We do not consider an aqueous menstruum to be well adapted to
the purpose of exhausting the medicinal principles of hops, hence we think that
this elixir is not a desirable preparation.

136.  HUFELAND'S ELIXIR.

     Extract of blessed thistle,           1/4 troyounce.
     Extract of bittersweet,           1/4 troyounce.
     Fennel water,               8 fluidounces.
     Cherry-laurel water,          1 fluidounce.

     Mix the extracts in a mortar, and dissolve them by trituration with the
mixed fennel and cherry-laurel waters, and then filter.

137.  ELIXIR OF HYPOPHOSPHITES.

     Hypophosphite of calcium,          384 grains.
     Hypophosphite of sodium,          128 grains.
     Hypophosphite of potassium,          128 grains.
     Citric acid,                30 grains.
     Water,                 4 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                   1/2 fluidounce.
     Compound spirit of cardamom,              1/2 fluidounce.
     Aromatic elixir,                enough to make 16 fluidounces.
     The hypophosphites and the citric acid are to be dissolved in the water;
then the alcohol, compound spirit of cardamom, and enough aromatic elixir to
make sixteen fluidounces are to be added. Filter if necessary.  Each fluidrachm
contains three grains of hypophosphite of calcium and one grain each of the
hypophosphites of sodium and potassium.  This formula is similar to that
adopted by the National Formulary.

138. ELIXIR OF HYPOPHOSPHITES WITH IRON.

     Hypophosphite of calcium,          188 grains
     Hypophosphite of sodium,          128 grains
     Hypophosphite of potassium,          64 grains
     Sulphate of iron, in crystals,     96 grains
     Citric acid,               30 grains
     Water,               4 fluidounces.
     Syrup,               4 fluidounces.
     Aromatic elixir,                enough to make 16 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the hypophosphites in three fluidounces of water and add the
syrup.  Dissolve the sulphate of iron in the remainder of the water, then mix
the solutions.  To this add six fluidounces of aromatic elixir and allow the
mixture to stand in a cool place for twelve hours, then filter it.  Finally,
dissolve the citric acid in the filtrate and pass enough aromatic elixir
through the filter to make sixteen fluidounces. Each fluidrachm contains about
one-half grain of ferrous hypophosphite, about one grain each of the
hypophosphites of calcium and sodium, and one-half grain of hypophosphite of
potassium.  This formula is similar to that of the National Formulary and
identical in strength.

139.  ELIXIR OF AMMONIO-CITRATE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF IRON.)

     Ammonio-citrate of iron (soluble citrate),
                    256 grains.
     Simple elixir,          a sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the ammonio-citrate of iron in twelve fluidounces of simple
elixir, and bring this to the measure of sixteen fluidounces by the addition of
a sufficient quantity of simple elixir.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir represents two
grains of ammonio-citrate of iron, the same as that adopted by the American
Pharmaceutical Association, 1873.

140. ELIXIR OF IPECAC.

     Powdered ipecac,           1/2 troyounce
     Balsam of Tolu,           1/2 troyounce
     Benzoic acid,          2 drachms
     Opium,          2 drachms
     Saffron,          2 drachms
     Camphor,          2 scruples
     Oil of anise,          1 fluidrachm
     Alcohol,          2 pints

     Macerate the drugs in the alcohol for fourteen days, stirring the mixture
thoroughly each day, then filter, and dissolve the camphor and oil of anise in
the filtrate.

141. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF IRON.

     Bromide of iron,          256 grains.
     Simple elixir,          16 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the bromide of iron in the simple elixir by triturating them
together in a mortar, and then filter.  Should the bromide of iron fail to
completely dissolve (as is often the case), the product will be accordingly
deficient in strength.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of bromide of iron.

142.  ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF IRON WITH QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.

     Citrate of iron and quinine,          256 grains.
     Citrate of iron and strychnine,     128 grains.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Distilled water,               2 fluidounces.
     Dissolve the citrates in the distilled water, using a moderate heat if
required; then add the simple elixir, and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of citrate of iron and quinine and one grain of citrate of iron and strychnine.
 The above proportions were announced in New Remedies, 1878.

143.  ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON.  ELIXIR OF FERROUS CITRATE.)

     Crystallized sulphate of iron,     256 grains.
     Bicarbonate of sodium,          200 grains.
     Citric acid, distilled water,
                         of each a sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the bicarbonate of sodium and the sulphate of iron separately,
each in sixteen fluidounces of cold, freshly distilled water, and mix the
solutions; pour the mixture into a bottle, which must be filled to the stopper,
using more distilled water if necessary, and permit it to rest for twenty four
hours. Decant the clear solution and refill the bottle with freshly distilled
water, shaking well, and permit it to stand as before.  After twenty-four hours
decant the solution, pour the residue upon a fine muslin strainer and squeeze
the liquid from it. Dissolve the precipitate by trituration in a mortar with
citric acid in sufficient amount, and then add enough simple elixir to make
sixteen fluidounces, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of citrate
of protoxide of iron an amount which is equivalent to two grains of crystallized
sulphate of iron.  The name "elixir of protoxide of iron" is a misnomer.  It is
the elixir of a salt of protoxide of iron.
     Among the first of the modern elixirs introduced to the medical profession
was one under the name "elixir of bark and protoxide of iron." This preparation
is private property, and we are not acquainted with the formula and process
employed in making it.  Since its introduction this elixir has enjoyed a
popularity which commands for it a constant sale among physicians, and we
caution physicians against confusing it with the elixirs we give formulae for,
and which are not elixirs of protoxide of iron, although in commerce they have
acquired that title.

144.  ELIXIR OF CITRATE AND LACTATE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF CITRO-LACTATE OF IRON.)

     Lactate of iron,          96 grains.
     Citrate of iron,          96 grains.
     Water,          7 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,          5 fluidounces.
     Simple syrup,          9 fluidounces.
     Essence of lemon,          96 minims
     Essence of cloves,     1 minim

     Mix the distilled water and syrup, and dissolve in it the lactate of iron,
then add and dissolve the citrate of iron; cool, and mix with this solution the
simple syrup and the alcohol, having previously mixed the alcohol and essences
together.  Lastly, color the product with caramel until it is about the color
of brandy, and then filter it.  Lactate of iron is often only partially soluble
in water, but the syrup aids its solution.  If it refuses to entirely dissolve,
there will be a deficiency of this substance.
     The foregoing elixir acquired, we are told, considerable reputation in
France, where it was devised by "Robineaud of Bordeaux," and who finally
published the formula. (See Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical
Association, 1871, p. 321.)

145.  ELIXIR OF CHLORIDE OF IRON WITH AMMONIUM CITRATE AND GENTIAN.
(ELIXIR OF GENTIAN AND IRON.)
(FERRATED ELIXIR OF GENTIAN.)

     Fluid extract of gentian,           1/2 fluidounce
     Solution of citrate of ammonium,     1 fluidounce
     Tincture of chloride of iron,           1/2 fluidounce
     Simple elixir, carbonate of magnesium,
         distilled water,          of each a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of gentian in a mortar with carbonate of
magnesium in amount sufficient to form a thick paste, and then gradually add
four fluidounces of distilled water and filter.  Mix the tincture of chloride
of iron with the solution of citrate of ammonium and add to the preceding
filtrate, and then add of simple elixir a sufficient amount to make the whole
measure sixteen fluidounces.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains about two
minims each of tincture of chloride of iron and fluid extract of gentian.  The
citrate of ammonium is introduced to prevent blackening of the elixir, as
explained under elixir of calisaya and chloride of iron with citrate of
ammonium. '
     Elixir of gentian and chloride of iron was mentioned first in the
Druggists' Circular, 1871, and afterward (1873) Prof. Joseph P. Remington
presented a process through the American Journal of Pharmacy.  The Newark
Pharmaceutical Association (1871) recommended an elixir of gentian and
pyrophosphate of iron, and at a still earlier date Mr. William B. Thompson had
presented a process for this elixir through the Druggists' Circular.

146. ELIXIR OF CHLORIDE OF IRON WITH HYDROCHLORATE
OF QUININE AND ARSENIOUS ACID.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, QUINIA, AND ARSENIC.)

     Hydrochlorate of quinine,          64 grains.
     Solution of arsenious acid (U. S. P., 1883),
                         128 minims.
     Simple elixir,               15 fluidounces.
     Tincture of chloride of iron,          1 fluidounce.
     Hydrochloric acid,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the hydrochlorate of quinine in a mortar with four fluidounces
of simple elixir, and add of hydrochloric acid an amount sufficient to effect
its solution; then add the remainder of the simple elixir and the other
ingredients.  Filter if necessary.  If hydrochlorate of quinine cannot be
obtained, use quinine alkaloid instead, and hydrochloric acid enough to
dissolve it.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains about three
and one-half minims of tincture of chloride of iron, one-half grain of
hydrochlorate of quinine, and one minim of officinal solution of arsenic.
     Our formula introduces the hydrochlorate of quinine, chloride of iron,
and solution of arsenious acid in hydrochloric acid.  Too great caution cannot
be employed to prevent the precipitation of arsenic, and by using hydrochloric
acid this tendency to separation is avoided.

147. ELIXIR OF PROTOCHLORIDE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF FERROUS CHLORIDE.)

     Crystallized sulphate of iron,     256 grains.
     Bicarbonate of sodium,          200 grains.
     Hydrochloric acid, simple elixir, dis-
         tilled water,               of each a sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the sulphate of iron and bicarbonate of sodium separately, each
in sixteen fluidounces of distilled water, and mix the solutions; pour the
mixture into a bottle, which must be filled to the stopper, using more
distilled water if necessary, and permit it to rest twenty-four hours; decant
the clear solution and refill the bottle with freshly distilled water, shaking
well, and permit it to stand as before. After twenty-four hours decant the
solution; pour the residue upon a fine muslin strainer and squeeze the liquid
from it.  Dissolve the precipitate by trituration in a mortar with hydrochloric
acid in sufficient amount, and then add enough simple elixir to make sixteen
fluidounces, and filter it.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of chloride
of protoxide of iron (ferrous chloride) an amount which is equivalent to two
grains of crystallized sulphate of iron.
     This elixir may also be made by the action of hydrochloric acid on
metallic iron, using the same amount of acid, two hundred grains of iron, two
fluidounces of water, and a sufficient quantity of simple elixir.  Digest the
iron, water, and acid together until the action ceases; filter, and mix the
filtrate with simple elixir in amount sufficient to form sixteen fluidounces. 
This preparation is unstable.

148.  ELIXIR OF HYPOPHOSPHITE OF IRON.

     Hypophosphite of calcium,          128 grains.
     Citrate of potassium,          96 grains
     Solution of chloride of iron (ferric chlo-
          ride), simple elixir, distilled water,
                         of each a sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the hypophosphite of calcium in four fluidounces of distilled
water, and carefully add solution of chloride of iron until in very slight
excess.  Collect the precipitate and wash it until nearly free from chloride of
calcium.
     Dissolve the magma produced by the foregoing operation in eight
fluidounces of simple elixir, by the aid of the citrate of potassium, and then
add enough simple elixir to bring the whole to the measure of sixteen
fluidounces.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains three-
fourths of a grain of ferric hypophosphite.  This improved method for making
solution of hypophosphite of iron was introduced by Prof. C. Lewis Diehl in a
paper read before the Kentucky Pharmaceutical Association, 1882.  The original
was not in our possession, and we received the abstract presented in the
Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association just in time to insert
this one formula.

149. ELIXIR OF IODIDE OF IRON WITH IODIDE OF QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF IODIDE OF IRON AND QUINIA. )

     Iodide of iron,          16 grains.
     Iodide of quinine,     16 grains.
     Simple elixir,          16 fluidounces.

     Triturate the iodides in a mortar with the simple elixir adding a little
hydriodic acid if necessary, and, when they are dissolved, filter if desirable.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-eighth
grain each of iodide of iron and of iodide of quinine.  This formula was
announced in the Druggists' Circular, 1867.

150.  ELIXIR OF LACTATE OF IRON.

     Lactate of iron,          128 grains.
     Lactic acid, simple elixir,
                    of each a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the lactate of iron in a mortar with fourteen fluidounces of
simple elixir, and add of lactic acid a quantity sufficient to render the
liquid distinctly acid; then add enough simple elixir to bring the whole to the
measure of sixteen fluidounces, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of lactate of iron.
     The National Formulary recommends that one hundred and twenty-eight
grains of lactate of iron, in crusts, and three hundred and eighty-four grains
of citrate of potassium be dissolved in enough aromatic elixir to make sixteen
fluidounces.  Each fluidrachm contains one grain of lactate of iron.  This
formula is preferable to the foregoing.

151. ELIXIR OF LACTATE OF IRON WITH PEPSIN.

     Elixir of lactate of iron,     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pepsin,          8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
each of lactate of iron and saccharated pepsin.

152. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF IRON.

     Phosphate of iron, soluble (U. S. P.
             1883),          256 grains.
     Simple elixir,           12 fluidounces.
     Distilled water,            4 fluidounces.
 
     Dissolve the phosphate of iron in the distilled water and add the simple
elixir.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of phosphate of iron.
     In former editions of this work each fluidrachm represented one grain of
phosphate of iron.  The National Formulary has established two grains as the
preferable amount, and in this edition we have accepted that quantity.

153.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PHOSPHATE OF QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF IRON AND QUINIA.)

     Elixir of phosphate of iron,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of phosphate of quinine,     8 fluidounces

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half
grain each of phosphate of iron and phosphate of quinine.

154.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PHOSPHATE OF QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF PHOSPHATE OF IRON, QUINIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of phosphate of iron and quinine,     16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,                1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient
to effect its solution, and then add the elixir.  Filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half
grain each of phosphates of iron and quinine, and one-hundredth of a grain of
strychnine.
     In 1878 Mr. J. Creuse contributed an article to the Druggists' Circular
regarding a preparation sold under the name of the foregoing elixir, which
proved to be an elixir of pyrophosphate of iron.  It is also true that other
preparations containing pyrophosphate of iron are sometimes dispensed where
phosphate is specified, and physicians should be careful and use the
abbreviation phos. only when the phosphate is desired.

ELIXIRS WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.

     Pyrophosphate of iron furnishes a line of combinations which are
extensively used.  It is not unpleasant to the taste, and is quite permanent,
especially if in neutral or slightly alkaline solution. However, an excess of
mineral acids or certain mineral salts decomposes it, and the excess even of
acetic acid causes its solution to gelatinize after a time. This difficulty can
be overcome by adding to the gelatinized elixir enough ammonia water to restore
the alkaline reaction.
     Pyrophosphate of iron is incompatible with solutions of alkaloidal salts,
unless the resultant liquid is neutral or can dissolve the alkaloid and have an
alkaline reaction.  If this fact is remembered the pharmacist may save some
expense and inconvenience. If, for example, the elixir of pyrophosphate of iron
and quinine has gelatinized from escape of ammonia, the cautious addition of
ammonia water will restore it to the original condition.  If, upon the other
hand, the elixir has been made of alkaline reaction and the alkaloid has
separated, the cautious addition of acetic acid will restore the transparency.
     Solutions of pyrophosphate of iron cannot be exposed to sunlight without
decomposition, and the same, to an extent, is true even of daylight, without
the direct rays of the sun. Those who have reason to associate pyrophosphate of
iron, pepsin, and salts of the alkaloids will find that considerable skill is
necessary to make presentable and reputable preparations, and often some of
these combinations are very trying to the patience of the operator.  The reader
is referred to remarks under the head of pepsin and elixirs of calisaya bark
and the alkaloids.

155. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.

     Pyrophosphate of iron,     256 grains.
     Distilled water,            2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,          a sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the pyrophosphate of iron in the distilled water by the aid of a
heat not exceeding 180 F., and add to the solution enough simple elixir to
bring the whole to the measure of sixteen fluidounces, and filter if necessary.
If it has an acid reaction, neutralize, or even render it slightly alkaline,
by means of ammonia water.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of pyrophosphate of iron.  This process is essentially that adopted by the
American Pharmaceutical Association (1875).  The formula for elixir of
pyrophosphate of iron, adopted by the joint committee of the Medical and
Pharmaceutical Associations of the District of Columbia (1867), contained three
hundred and twenty grains of pyrophosphate of iron in twelve fluidounces of the
finished elixir.

156. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH BISMUTH AND PEPSIN.
(ELIXIR OF AMMONIO-CITRATE OF BISMUTH WITH PEPSIN AND IRON.)
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, BISMUTH, AND IRON.)

     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,.     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of citrate of ammonium and
         bismuth with pepsin,          8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of pyrophosphate of iron and only one half grain each of pepsin and of ammonio-
citrate of bismuth.  The solution has an alkaline reaction, and the pepsin,
under these conditions, is of uncertain quality.

157. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH CINCHONIDINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON AND CINCHONIDIA.)

     Elixir of cinchonidine,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,     8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together, and then gradually add of ammonia water or acetic acid
an amount sufficient to render the liquid of neutral reaction and transparent,
then filter it if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of pyrophosphate of iron and one-half grain of cinchonidine. The remarks
concerning elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with strychnine are adapted to this
preparation.

158.  ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH CINCHONIDINE AND STRYCHNINE
(ELIXIR OF IRON, CINCHONIDIA, AND STRYCHNIA. )

     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron
         with cinchonidine,          16 fluidounces.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the strychnine and gradually add acetic acid until it is dissolved,
then mix with this solution the elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with
cinchonidine.  Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains
one grain of pyrophosphate of iron, acetate of cinchonidine equivalent to one-
half grain of cinchonidine, and one-hundredth of a grain of acetate of
strychnine.
     The National Formulary prepares this elixir with phosphate of iron,
citrate of potassium, sulphate of cinchonidine, and sulphate of strychnine. 
The finished product resembles that of our formula, the amount of iron, however,
being twice as great.

159. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE, CINCHONIDINE, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, QUINIA, CINCHONIDIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with
        quinine,               8 fluidounces
     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with
        cinchonidine,               8 fluidounces
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the elixirs, and add the strychnine previously dissolved by
trituration with a sufficient amount of acetic acid.  Each fluidrachm
(teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-fourth grain of cinchonidine
and one-half grain of quinine as the acetates of these alkaloids, one grain of
pyrophosphate of iron, and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.

160.  ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH CINCHONINE .
(ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND CINCHONIA )

     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of cinchonine,          8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together, and then gradually add of ammonia water or acetic acid
an amount sufficient to render the liquid of neutral reaction and transparent.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
each of pyrophosphate of iron and cinchonine.  Our remarks concerning elixir of
pyrophosphate of iron and strychnine may be applied with equal pertinence to
this preparation.

161.  ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON AND QUINIA. )

     Quinine (alkaloid),          128 grains.
     Pyrophosphate of iron,          256 grains
     Simple elixir, distilled water, diluted
               acetic acid,...................of each a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the quinine in a mortar, gradually adding the acetic acid until
in sufficient amount to effect its solution.  Dissolve the pyrophosphate of
iron in two fluidounces of warm water, and add enough simple elixir to make ten
fluidounces.  To this add the solution of acetate of quinine, and then simple
elixir until in amount sufficient to make the whole measure sixteen fluidounces.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of this preparation contains two grains of
pyrophosphate of iron and the salt formed from one grain of quinine.  The Newark
Pharmaceutical Association (1871) adopted a formula which resembled the above,
but which contained only one hundred and sixty grains of pyrophosphate of iron
to the pint.  As two hundred and fifty-six grains is the accepted amount of the
American Pharmaceutical Association, we employ that proportion.

162.  ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE AND CINCHONIDINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, QUINIA, AND CINCHONIDIA.)

     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with quinine,     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with cinchonidine,     8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of pyrophosphate of iron and the equivalent of one-half grain of quinine and
one-fourth grain of cinchonidine as the acetates of these alkaloids.

163. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE AND CINCHONINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, QUINIA, AND CINCHONIA.)

     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with quinine,     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with cinchonine,     8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of this elixir contains two grains of
pyrophosphate of iron and the equivalent of one-half grain of quinine and one-
fourth grain of cinchonine as the acetates of these alkaloids.

164. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE, CINCHONINE, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, QUINIA, CINCHONIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron
          with quinine and cinchonine,     16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,                1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with enough acetic acid to effect
its solution, then mix this with the elixir.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of pyrophosphate of iron, and the equivalent of one-half grain of quinine and
one-fourth grain of cinchonine as the acetates of these alkaloids, and one-
hundredth of a grain of acetate of strychnine.

165.  ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, QUINIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron
         with quinine,               16 fluidounces..
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the strychnine and triturate it with sufficient acetic acid to
effect its solution.  Mix this with the elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with
quinine.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-
hundredth of a grain of strychnine, one grain of quinine, and two grains of
pyrophosphate of iron.  It agrees in proportions with the formula adopted by
the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875.
     The National Formulary uses phosphate of iron, citrate of potassium,
hydrochlorate of quinine, and sulphate of strychnine.  The finished product,
however, is similar to that made by our process, the difference being that each
fluidrachm contains two grains of phosphate of iron instead of one grain of
pyrophosphate.
     The aforenamed work also prepares an elixir under the name elixir of
iron, quinine, and strychnine, in which two fluidounces of tincture of citro-
chloride of iron, one hundred and twenty-eight grains of sulphate of quinine,
one and one-quarter grains of sulphate of strychnine, one-half fluidounce of
alcohol, and enough aromatic elixir to make sixteen fluidounces are employed. 
The alkaloidal salts are dissolved in twelve fluidounces of aromatic elixir,
then the tincture and the alcohol are added, and finally enough aromatic elixir
to make sixteen fluidounces.  Each fluidrachm represents about one grain of
ferric chloride, one grain of sulphate of quinine, and one-hundredth of a grain
of sulphate of strychnine.

166.     ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH VALERIANATE OF QUININE AND ACETATE
OF
     STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF QUINIA WITH IRON AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Valerianate of quinine,          128 grains.
     Pyrophosphate of iron,          128 grains.
     Strychnine,                 1 1/4 grains.
     Simple elixir,                16 fluidounces
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient
to effect its solution, then add the valerianate of quinine and four fluidounces
of simple elixir, and triturate until the valerianate is dissolved.  Should the
valerianate of quinine fail to dissolve after a moderate time, add a little
acetic acid.  Lastly, dissolve the pyrophosphate in the remainder of the simple
elixir and mix the solutions.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
each of the valerianate of quinine and pyrophosphate of iron, and one-fiftieth
grain of strychnine.
     This formula corresponds, regarding proportions, with one offered by the
Druggists' Circular, 1871, excepting that ours contains half the amount of
pyrophosphate of iron.

167. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PEPSIN
(ELIXIR OF IRON AND PEPSIN.) 
(FERRATED ELIXIR OF PEPSIN.)

     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pepsin,               8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together, and, if not neutral or of slightly alkaline reaction,
cautiously add ammonia water until it will change blue litmus paper to red.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
each of pyrophosphate of iron and such a modification of pepsin as can exist
under the conditions necessary to form the elixir.

168. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PEPSIN, BISMUTH, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, PEPSIN, BISMUTH, AND STRYCHNIA.)
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, BISMUTH, STRYCHNIA, AND IRON.)

     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of ammonio-citrate of bis-
         muth and pepsin,          8 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,14 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid sufficient to
dissolve it, and then add the elixirs, having previously mixed them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains (subject to
remarks which follow) one grain of pyrophosphate of iron, one-half grain each
of ammonio-citrate of bismuth and of pepsin, and one-hundredth of a grain of
strychnine.
     This mixture, like many others we have been led to consider in this work,
reminds us of the polypharmacy of olden times, excepting that the constituents
are new.  In considering it we must accept that the pepsin has no value as a
therapeutical agent, unless its action is simply suspended by the alkaline nature
of the elixir.

169.  ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PEPSIN AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, PEPSIN, AND STRYCHNIA.)
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron
         with pepsin,               16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in sufficient amount
to effect its solution, and then add the elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with
pepsin.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
each of pyrophosphate of iron and of pepsin, and about one-hundredth of a grain
of strychnine as the acetate of that alkaloid.

170. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,     16 fluidounces.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the strychnine and gradually add acetic acid and triturate until a
clear solution results. Mix this with the elixir of pyrophosphate of iron, and,
if not of neutral reaction, add acetic acid or ammonia water to neutralization
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-
hundredth of a grain of strychnine in the form of acetate of strychnine, which
is the proportion adopted by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875.
      Our experience is decidedly in favor of acetic acid for making the salts
of all alkaloids which are to be associated with pyrophosphate or citrate of
iron.  These preparations of iron are incompatible with most acids, and require
to be neutral or alkaline if held in solution, while, upon the contrary, most
alkaloids demand an excess of an acid. Acetic acid may be added until the
solution of the iron salt is even slightly acid, as shown by its action on blue
litmus paper, and such a solution will generally remain clear, although it may
gelatinize.  Every aqueous or slightly alcoholic liquid containing strychnine
in solution should have, if possible, an acid reaction, else the alkaloid may
gradually separate, and danger of poisoning follow the administration of this
sediment.  Hence our directions to add enough acetic acid to overcome all
alkaline reaction.

171  ELIXIR OF JUNIPER BERRIES.

     Fluid extract of juniper berries,      2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Holland gin,                2 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of juniper berries in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.  Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the Holland gin.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of juniper berries.  A formula for elixir of juniper
berries was suggested in the Druggists' Circular, 1878, which contained the
ingredients upon which we have based our process.

172.  ELIXIR OF JABORANDI.

     Fluid extract of jaborandi,           1 fluidounce.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                 1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,           a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of jaborandi in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir will contain the medicinal
principles of three and three-fourth minims of fluid extract of jaborandi.
     In former editions of our publication two fluidounces of fluid extract of
jaborandi were used in making sixteen fluidounces of the elixir.  The National
Formulary recognizes one fluidounce, and we change our proportions to conform
therewith.

173.  KLEIN'S STOMACHIC ELIXIR.
(ELIXIR VISCERALE KLEINII.)

     Extract of carduus benedictus,     1 troyounce.
     Extract of erythraea centaurium,     1 troyounce.
     Extract of gentian,          1 troyounce.
     Tincture of bitter orange peel,     20 fluidounces.
     Malaga wine,               32 fluidounces.

     Place the extracts in a mortar and bring them to a creamy consistence by
trituration, with successive additions of small amounts of wine; then stir in
the remainder of the wine and add the tincture of orange peel, and filter.
(From the Non-Officinal Formulary of the Dutch Society for the Advancement of
Pharmacy.)

ELIXIR LACTOPEPTIN.

     Lactopeptin is private property.  Under this name a preparation has been
introduced and extensively advertised, and through courtesy to the rightful
owners, who also make an "Elixir of Lactopeptin," we refrain from interfering.

174.  ELIXIR OF LACTUCARIUM.

     Lactucarium,          256 grains.
     Simple elixir,           16 fluidounces.

     Triturate the lactucarium with the simple elixir, allow the mixture to
remain in a covered vessel for twenty-four hours, shaking occasionally, then
filter it.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains the
properties of two grains of lactucarium.

175. LAXATIVE ELIXIR.

     Fluid extract of rhubarb,            1/2 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of senna,            1/2 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of taraxacum,            1/2 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of buckthorn bark,       1/4 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of ginger,            1/4 fluidounce.
     Rochelle salt,                1 troyounce.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extracts (having previously mixed them together) in a
capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a
creamy mixture; then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Lastly, dissolve in the filtrate the Rochelle salt.
     This elixir is about like that of Mr. R. W. Gardner, as published in the
Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1880, excepting that we
have omitted phosphate and bicarbonate of sodium.

176.  LEROY'S PURGATIVE ELIXIR.

     Scammony,          120 grains.
     Turpeth root,           60 grains.
     Jalap,          480 grains.
     Diluted alcohol,           16 fluidounces.

     Macerate the drugs (coarsely powdered) in the alcohol for twelve hours and
in a warm location, and filter.  Mix the filtrate with a syrup made as follows:

     Senna, bruised,          480 grains.
     Boiling water,            4 fluidounces.
     Sugar,            3 1/2 troyounces.

     Infuse the senna in the boiling water, strain, and dissolve the sugar in
the liquid.  This formula was published in the Druggists' Circular, 1875.
     The above elixir must not be confounded with "Leroy's vomito purgative
elixir."

177.  LEROY'S VOMITO-PURGATIVE ELIXIR.

     Fluid extract of senna,           1 1/2 fluidounces.
     Tartar emetic,               20 grains.
     White wine,               16 fluidounces.

     Triturate the fluid extract of senna in a capacious mortar with carbonate
of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add
the wine, stirring well, and filter.  Lastly, dissolve the tartar emetic in the
filtrate.  The original formula used senna leaves instead of the fluid extract
of senna.

178. LETTSOM'S ELIXIR.

     Opium,                6 drachms.
     Castile soap,                6 drachms.
     Nutmeg,                1 drachm.
     Camphor,                4 drachms.
     Saffron,               40 grains
     Spirit of ammonia,           9 fluidounces.
     Mix and reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the
spirit of ammonia for ten days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then
filter.Augustin.

179. BITTER ELIXIR OF LIFE.*

     Aloes,            1 troyounce.
     Cinnamon,           10 troyounces.
     Calamus,            2 1/2 troyounces.
     Angelica root,            5 troyounces.
     Saffron,            6 troyounces.
     Caramel,           10 troyounces.
     Glycerin,          215 troyounces.
     Alcohol,          180 fluidounces.
     Water,          350 fluidounces.

     Mix and reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the
mixed alcohol and water for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each
day, then filter, and to the filtrate add the glycerin and caramel.
(HAGERNew Remedies, 1878.)
*The German Pharmacopoeia, 1872, substituted compound tincture of aloes for
this elixir.

180.  ELIXIR OF LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.
(ELIXIR OF LACTOPHOSPHATE OF CALCIUM. )

     Precipitated phosphate of calcium,     128 grains.
     Simple elixir, lactic acid, hydrochloric acid,
          ammonia water, distilled water,     of each a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the precipitated phosphate of calcium with sixteen fluidounces of
cold distilled water, and add enough hydrochloric acid to dissolve it.  Filter
this solution and mix with its bulk of cold water, and then add ammonia water
until in slight excess.  Transfer the mixture to a fine muslin strainer, and
when the liquid has drained return the magma to the vessel, mix it with the
amount of water before employed, and again transfer it to the strainer.  As
soon as the magma is again drained, transfer it to a mortar and dissolve it by
the addition of a sufficient amount of lactic acid.  Filter this, and add
enough simple elixir to produce sixteen fluidounces.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of lactophosphate of calcium.

181. ELIXIR OF LICORICE.

     Fluid extract of licorice,           2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of licorice in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of licorice.  This preparation is used mainly to
disguise the taste of quinine.  Elixir of glycyrrhizin is an admirable
substitute.  The remarks concerning that elixir apply with equal pertinence to
elixir of licorice.
     The National Formulary authorizes the use of purified extract of licorice
in making this elixir.  The result is similar to that of our formula.

182. ELIXIR OF LICORICE (AROMATIC).

     Fluid extract of licorice,          2 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of sweet orange,      1/2 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of coriander,           1/4 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of angelica seed,      1/4 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of cinnamon,           1/4 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of cloves,           1/8 fluidounce.
     Simple elixir,               13 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extractshaving previously mixed them togetherin a
capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a
creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of licorice, together with aromatics. This elixir is
used to disguise the taste of quinine, which it accomplishes mainly by rendering
it insoluble; hence we refer the reader to our remarks concerning elixir of
glycyrrhizin, which may with equal pertinence be applied to this preparation.
     Aromatic elixir of licorice was introduced through the Druggists' Circular
in 1879, although similar preparations had been employed previously, and the
elixir of licorice of Mr. G. G. C. Sims (see Druggists' Circular, 1874) was
nearly identical with the above.
     The National Formulary recommends fluid extract of licorice and oils of
the aromatic drugs in making this elixir.  The result is similar to that of our
formula.

183. ELIXIR E SUCCO LIQUIRITAE.
(PECTORALE ELIXIR.)

     Purified licorice,          2 parts, by weight.
     Fennel water,               6 parts, by weight.
        Make a solution, and add of
     *Anisated spirit of ammonia,          2 parts, by weight.
*ANISATED SPIRIT OF AMMONIA.Dissolve one part of oil of anise in twenty four
parts of alcohol, and add five parts of ammonia water.
All the proportions are by weight.
     It forms a cloudy, brown liquid, which must be shaken up before
dispensing.  It should be preserved in well-closed vessels.
(German Pharmacopoeia, 1870.)
     This preparation is also called elixir pectorale Regis Danitae, or
pectoral elixir of the King of Denmark.

184.  ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF LITHIUM.

     Bromide of lithium,          640 grains.
     Citric acid,                30 grains
     Simple elixir,               enough to make 16 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the bromide of lithium and the citric acid in the simple elixir,
and filter.
     Each fluidrachm contains five grains of bromide of lithium.

185. ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF LITHIUM

     Citrate of lithium,          640 grains.
     Simple elixir,          16 fluidounces

     Dissolve the citrate of lithium in the simple elixir, and filter if
necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains five grains
of citrate of lithium.  This proportion was adopted by the joint committee of
the National College of Pharmacy and the Medical Society of the District of
Columbia.
     In former editions of our formula we used two hundred and fifty-six
grains of citrate of lithium, but the National Formulary established the
proportions of six hundred and forty grains, which we adopt.

186.  ELIXIR OF SALICYLATE OF LITHIUM

     Salicylate of lithium,           640 grains.
     Simple elixir,               enough to make 16 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the salicylate of lithium in the simple elixir, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm contains five grains of salicylate of lithium.

187. ELIXIR OF LUPULIN.

     Fluid extract of lupulin,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of lupulin in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well; permit the mixture to macerate
in a closed vessel for twelve hours, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with
the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents such an amount of seven
and one-half minims of fluid extract of lupulin as will dissolve in the
menstruum.
     Elixir of lupulin was introduced by Prof. C. Lewis Diehl in 1872.

188.  ELIXIR OF MALT.

     Fluid extract of malt,          8 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of this elixir represents thirty minims of
fluid extract of malt.
     If a teaspoonful of elixir of malt is mixed with a tablespoonful of starch
 paste made by boiling one part of starch with sixteen parts of water, the
mixture will immediately become fluid at a temperature of 150 Fahr.  In from
ten to fifteen minutes the mixture will fail to produce a blue color when
dropped into dilute solution of iodine (volumetric solution of iodine, U. S.
P.).

189.  ELIXIR OF MALT AND IRON.

     Elixir of malt,               8 fluidounces
     Elixir of phosphate of iron,          8 fluidounces

     Mix them together and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) contains fifteen minims of fluid extract of
malt and one half grain of phosphate of iron.
     New Remedies for August, 1883, contains a formula for this preparation
which is essentially the same as that we give.  We modify it somewhat, in order
that it shall conform to the other preparations of our work of a like nature.
     The National Formulary makes this preparation of extract of malt and
phosphate of iron, the proportions being one grain of phosphate of iron and
fifteen minims of extract of malt to each fluidrachm.

190. ELIXIR OF MALT AND PEPSIN.

     Elixir of malt,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pepsin,          8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.  Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir
contains one grain of saccharated pepsin and fifteen minims of fluid extract of
malt.

191. ELIXIR OF MALTO-PEPSIN.

     Malto-pepsin is private property.  Under this name a preparation has been
introduced and extensively advertised, and through courtesy to the rightful
owners, who also make an "Elixir of Malto-Pepsin," we refrain from interfering.

192.  ELIXIR OF MATICO.

     Fluid extract of matico,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of matico in a capacious mortar with carbonate
 of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add
the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the
alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents such part of seven and
one-half minims of fluid extract of matico as will dissolve in the menstruum
employed in its preparation.  We consider alcohol of specific gravity 0.820 to
be the proper menstruum for exhausting the medicinal principles from matico,
and the addition of water decreases its solvent power in proportion to the
amount of water added.  In consequence of this fact we object to an elixir of
matico.

193. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MATICO.

     Fluid extract of matico,          3 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of buchu,          1 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of cubebs,          1 fluidounce.
     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluid extracts, and evaporate the mixture, at a temperature of
about 150 F., to one-half its bulk.  Triturate this with a sufficient amount
of carbonate of magnesium to form a creamy mixture, then gradually stir in the
simple elixir, and filter.  The fluid extracts for the foregoing preparation
should be made with alcohol of specific gravity 0. 820.  The proportions and
ingredients of this elixir, and upon which we have based our formula, were
given in the Druggists' Circular, 1880.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir will contain such an amount of the
properties of about eleven minims of fluid extract of matico and three and one-
half minims each of buchu and cubebs as will dissolve in the menstruum.  Since,
in our opinion, strong alcohol only will perfectly extract the medicinal
principles of these drugs, the actual value of this elixir is very much less
than that of an equivalent amount of the original fluid extracts, and its use
by the physician must be unsatisfactory.

194.  ELIXIR OF MAY-APPLE
(ELIXIR OF PODOPHYLLUM.  ELIXIR OF MANDRAKE.)

     Fluid extract of May-apple,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of May-apple in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents such an amount of seven
and one-half minims of fluid extract of May-apple as the menstruum can dissolve.
  Since resin of podophyllum is almost insoluble in water, we do not admire the
above preparation.

195. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MAY-APPLE
(COMPOUND ELIXIR OF PODOPHYLLUM. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MANDRAKE.)

     Fluid extract of May-apple,          1 1/2 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of senna,          1 fluidounce.
     Oil of anise,               10 minims.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluid extracts and triturate this in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture--having
previously triturated the oil of anise with the magnesium carbonatethen
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.  Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents (subject to conditions
noted under elixir of May-apple) about five minims of fluid extract of May-apple
and three minims of fluid extract of senna.  A formula for this preparation was
proposed by the Druggists' Circular, 1872, containing in substance the
foregoing ingredients. The remarks we make regarding elixir of May-apple apply
to this compound also, although we have the advantage of the senna in this
instance, which yields its medicinal principles to the menstruum composing the
elixir.

196.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MYRRH.
(ELIXIR MYRRHae COMPOSITUM.)

     Extract of savin,               1 troyounce.
     Tincture of castor,          1 pint.
     Tincture of myrrh,           1/2 pint.

     Digest them together and strain.  "This preparation is improved from one
described in some former dispensatories under the name of Elixir Uterinum."
(New Dispensatory, London, 1770.)

197.  ELIXIR OF NUX VOMICA.

     Tincture of nux vomica,          256 minims.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Acetic acid,               60 minims.
     Powdered wood charcoal,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the tincture of nux vomica in a capacious mortar with powdered
wood charcoal in amount sufficient to form a pasty mixture, then gradually add
the simple elixirwhich has previously been mixed with the acetic acidstirring
well, and filter.  Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents two minims of tincture
of nux vomica.
     The foregoing is a modification of a formula suggested by Mr. E. J.
Davidson in the American Journal of Pharmacy, 1878.  We use acetic acid to hold
the alkaloids in solution should the charcoal be alkaline, and use charcoal
since the menstruum is incompatible with both magnesium carbonate and magnesium
phosphate.

198.  McMUNN'S ELIXIR OF OPIUM.

     This preparation has for several years enjoyed quite a reputation, and is
still a favorite with many physicians.  The original "McMunn's elixir," a
proprietary preparation, was a denarcotized solution of opium.  In connection
with the history of this elixir, we find that Mr. Augustine Duhamel contributed
to the American Journal of Pharmacy, 1846, as follows:
     "A preparation much in vogue at the present time, and known as McMunn's
elixir of opium, is supposed to be a solution of meconate of morphine, obtained
from a cold infusion of opium, to which wine has been added in sufficient
quantity to insure its preservation."
     In 1851 Mr. Eugene Dupuy, of New York, in a communication to the same
journal, proposed as a substitute for McMunn's elixir an aqueous solution of
opium preserved with alcohol.  Afterward (1864) the Medical and Surgical
Recorder, of Philadelphia, published what we have every reason to suppose is
the authentic formula.  This was found among the effects of the late Dr. J. R.
Chilton, who stated that he obtained it from Dr. John B. McMunn, the originator
of the elixir.  The process may be summarized as follows:
     Exhaust gum opium with successive macerations in sulphuric ether.  After
the final decantation of the ether, boil the opium in water until all odor of
sulphuric ether has disappeared, and then strain the solution, permit it to
settle, decant the clear liquid, and add rather more than its bulk of alcohol.
     It will be observed that the foregoing process produces simply a solution
of opium from which the narcotine and opium odor have been removed by means of
previous maceration with sulphuric ether, and the officinal (18883) deodorized
tincture of opium may be considered a substitute.

199.  ELIXIR OF ORANGE.

     *Oil of orange, fresh and pure,     30 minims.
     Simple syrup,               8 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               4 fluidounces.
     Distilled water,               4 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,           1/2 troyounce.
*Pure oil of orange must be used in this preparation.  Much of the commercial
oil produces an elixir which has the odor and taste of turpentine, and sometimes
only of turpentine.  We will suggest that pure oil of orange can only be
obtained by paying the price at which it can be sold, but it does not follow
that all of the high-priced oil is pure.

     Triturate the oil of orange in a capacious mortar with the carbonate of
magnesium, then gradually add the simple syrup, stirring well, having previously
mixed it with the water and one-half the alcohol, and filter it.  Lastly, mix
the filtrate with the remainder of the alcohol.  This has an excellent flavor,
and can be used instead of simple elixir, if preferred.  Our simple elixir
contains more oil than the foregoing, but it is more troublesome to make.

200. ELIXIR OF PANCREAS.

     Take six pancreases and chop them into pieces, and macerate three days in
a mixture of

     Water,               12 pints.
     Glycerin,                2 1/2 pints.
     Hydrochloric acid,          4 fluidounces.

     Then strain and add two and one-half fluidrachms of oil of orange,
glycerin in amount sufficient to produce twenty pints, and then filter.
     This formula was announced in 1873, through the American Journal of
Pharmacy, by Dr. R. V. Mattison, who states that one fluidrachm of the elixir
will emulsify one-half of a fluidounce of cod-liver oil.

201. ELIXIR OF PAREIRA BRAVA.

     Fluid extract of pareira brava,      2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.
     Triturate the fluid extract of pareira brava in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of pareira brava.

202. ELIXIR OF PAREIRA BRAVA AND BUCHU.

     Elixir of buchu,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pareira brava,          8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains such an
amount of four minims each of fluid extract of buchu and fluid extract of
pareira brava as will dissolve in the menstruum.

203.  ELIXIR PAREGORICUM.
(CAMPHORATED TINCTURE. OF OPIUM.)

     The formula of the London Pharmacopoeia, 1770, was taken from Le Mort,
excepting honey, licorice, and potassium carbonate.  It is stated in the New
Dispensatory, published in London, 1770, that this preparation was originally
known as "Elixir Asthmaticum."

204. PECTORAL ELIXIR OF THE EDINBURGH Pharmacopoeia, 1770.

     Balsam Tolu,           2 troyounces.
     Balsam Peru,           1 troyounce.
     Benzoic acid,            1/2 troyounce.
     Saffron,            1/2 troyounce.
     Alcohol,          32 fluidounces.

     Digest in a sand bath for three days, then filter.  (It should be made by
maceration instead of heat.L.)  The pectoral elixir of modern times is "elixir
e succo liquiritae," to which the reader is referred.

ELIXIRS CONTAINING PEPSIN.

     It has been shown by Prof. Emil Scheffer that pepsin is incompatible with
alcohol. By an elaborate series of experiments Prof. Scheffer demonstrated that
even the amount of alcohol which exists in sherry wine prevents the wine from
dissolving pepsin from the mucous membrane of the pig's stomach (Journal of
Pharmacy, 1870).  In connection with this portion of our subject, we quote from
Prof. Scheffer's writings as follows:  "After these experiments I do not
hesitate to say that the so-called wine of pepsin does not contain any pepsin
at all, and that all the medical virtue of it has to be attributed to the wine
itself."
     In continuance, 1872, the same author shows that solution of ammonio-
citrate of bismuth is incompatible with pepsin, and hence he concludes that the
benefit derived from the use of elixir of pepsin and bismuth was due to the
alcohol or the bismuth salt.  Notwithstanding these facts, it is well known that
elixirs containing pepsin and bismuth associated are among the most popular. 
Let us now consider another phase of the subject.  If hydrochloric acid is added
to solution of ammonio-citrate of bismuth, as is well known, a precipitate
immediately results.  Here we have an additional incompatible, for hydrochloric
acid is usually employed in making solutions of pepsin, and we might be led to
argue therefrom that both the pepsin and the bismuth are probably absent from
elixir of pepsin and bismuth, and hence that the value of this elixir depends
upon the alcohol only.  We have been somewhat successful in overcoming the
incongruities we have just named by substituting acetic acid for hydrochloric
acid in the preparation of the pepsin liquid, thus permitting it to be mixed
with the bismuth solution without precipitation of bismuth, and also the
apparent solution of pepsin in the presence of ammonio-citrate of bismuth.
     (It is by no means certain that such a solution of pepsin is injured,
regarding its digestive power, by the substitution of acetic acid for
hydrochloric acid.  True it is that to dissolve albumen artificially
hydrochloric acid is necessary, but the juices in the stomach may render it
unnecessary. See elixir of pepsin.)
     We use the term "apparent solution of pepsin," for although the pepsin
undoubtedly disappears, it does not necessarily follow that it dissolves and
remains active pepsin.  Perhaps it is so modified as to be devoid of digestive
value and still remain dissolved.  Upon the other hand, even if this is the
case, it. is barely possible that such a pepsin is only paralyzed, and that its
vitality will return when it is taken into the stomach.  Were it not true that
these combinations are demanded by physicians, we might even ignore them
altogether.

205. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN.

     Pepsin, pure,          128 grains.
     Simple elixir,           16 fluidounces.
     Acetic acid,            2 fluidrachms.

     Mix them together and shake occasionally during a period of not less than
twenty-four hours.  Do not filter unless absolutely necessary. The acid usually
employed to effect the solution of pepsin (hydrochloric acid) is substituted in
this case by acetic acid.  We do this in order to obtain a simple elixir of
pepsin more compatible with certain iron salts and with ammonio-citrate of
bismuth. Hydrochloric acid may be necessary in connection with pepsin to effect
the artificial solution of coagulated albumen, but we are by no means convinced
that it is a necessity when the pepsin is in the stomach.  Indeed, the
probabilities are that the gastric juice supplies the acid principle, even in
very dyspeptic persons, and reports from those who use dry pepsin corroborate
the inference.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of saccharated pepsin.
     The formula first brought to our notice for elixir of pepsin appeared in
the Druggists' Circular, 1869.  Fresh rennet was employed, with salt, wine, and
aromatics. The formula we present contains the proportion of pepsin recommended
by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1873.

206.     ELIXIR OF PEPSIN WITH CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH, AND PHOSPHATE OF
     QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, BISMUTH, AND QUINIA.)

     Elixir of pepsin and ammonio
          citrate of bismuth,     .     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of phosphate of quinine,     8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together, and neutralize very carefully by means of acetic acid
or ammonia water.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half
grain each of saccharated pepsin, ammonio-citrate of bismuth, and phosphate of
quinine.  This elixir should be discarded, as it is uncertain, unstable, and
made of incompatibles.

207.  ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONIDINE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND CINCHONIDIA.)

     Elixir of pepsin,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of phosphate of
         cinchonidine,          8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.  If not of acid reaction, add a sufficient amount of
acetic acid.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of saccharated pepsin and one-half grain of phosphate of cinchonidine.

208.  ELIXIR OF PEPSIN WITH PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONIDINE AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, CINCHONIDIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of pepsin and phosphate of
          cinchonidine,          16 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in sufficient amount
to effect its solution, and then add the elixir.  If not of acid reaction, add
a sufficient amount of acetic acid.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of saccharated pepsin, one-half grain of phosphate of quinine, and one-hundredth
of a grain of strychnine.

209.  ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONINE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND CINCHONIA )

     Elixir of pepsin,               8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of phosphate of
               cinchonine,          8 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.  If not of acid reaction, add acetic acid in sufficient
amount.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of saccharated pepsin and one-half grain of phosphate of cinchonine.

210.  ELIXIR OF PEPSIN WITH PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONINE AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, CINCHONIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of pepsin and phosphate of
               cinchonine,          8 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/2 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient
to effect its solution, and then add the elixir.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of saccharated pepsin, one-half grain of phosphate of cinchonine, and about one-
hundredth of a grain of strychnine.

211. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND IRON.

     The National Formulary prepares this elixir by adding five hundred and
twelve minims of citro-chloride of iron to enough elixir of pepsin to make
sixteen fluidounces.  Each fluidrachm represents about one-half grain of
chloride of iron and one grain of pepsin.

212.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS

      The National Formulary makes this elixir by mixing three and three-quarter
fluidounces of spirit of phosphorus, sixteen minims of oil of star anise, nine
fluidounces of alcohol, and aromatic elixir enough to make sixteen fluidounces.
The oil of star anise is added to the spirit of phosphorus, then the alcohol,
and the mixture is shaken until it forms a clear liquid, after which the
aromatic elixir is added in small portions.  Agitate after each addition until
a clear mixture results. This elixir should be kept in a cool, dry place, in
amber vials, and should not be made in large quantities.  Each fluidrachm
contains one-fiftieth of a grain of phosphorus.

213.  ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND WAFER ASH.
(ELIXIR OF PTELEA AND PEPSIN.)

     Fluid extract of ptelea,          2 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pepsin,               16 fluidounces.
     Powdered wood charcoal,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of ptelea with powdered wood charcoal in
amount sufficient to form a thick, pasty mixture, then gradually add the elixir
of pepsin, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm of this preparation represents such an amount of seven
and one-half grains of the medicinal principles of ptelea as will dissolve in
the elixir of pepsin, and two grains of saccharated pepsin.  However, as the
proper menstruum for extracting these principles from ptelea trifoliata is
alcohol of specific gravity 0.820, the elixir is not a representative of the
fluid extract of ptelea used in making it.  We direct powdered wood charcoal
instead of the magnesium carbonate or magnesium phosphate, as the first would
neutralize the acid of the elixir of pepsin, while the last would dissolve to a
considerable extent.

214.  ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND PHOSPHATE OF QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND QUINIA.)

     Elixir of pepsin,               8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of phosphate of quinine,     8 fluidounces.
     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of saccharated pepsin and one-half grain of quinine.

215. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, PHOSPHATE OF QUININE, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, QUINIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

     Elixir of pepsin,               8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of phosphate of quinine,     8 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,                a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient
to effect its solution, then add the elixirs, having previously mixed them
together.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of saccharated pepsin, one-half grain of quinine, and one-hundredth of a grain
of strychnine.

216.     ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, PHOSPHATE OF QUININE, STRYCHNINE, AND CITRATE OF
     AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, QUINIA, STRYCHNIA, AND BISMUTH.)

     Elixir of phosphate of quinine,     8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of pepsin and ammonio-citrate
               of bismuth,          8 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient
to effect its solution, and then add the elixirs, having previously mixed them
together.  If the elixir has an acid or an alkaline reaction, cautiously add
enough ammonia water or acetic acid, as the case may demand, to render it
neutral.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half
grain each of saccharated pepsin, quinine, and ammonio-citrate of bismuth, and
about one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine. This is an association of
incongruities and should be discarded.

217.  ELIXIR OF PEPTONE.

     Peptone,            1/4 troyounce.
     Sugar,          2 1/2 troyounces.
     Alcohol,          1 fluidounce.
     Port wine,          4 fluidounces.
     Water,          2 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the peptone in the water, then add the wine and sugar, and after
the sugar has dissolved add the alcohol.
(A. PETTIT )

218.  ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS.

     Phosphorus,           1 1/4 grains.
     Ether,           3 fluidrachms.
     Alcohol,           1 1/4 fluidounces.
     Essence of peppermint,      1 fluidrachm.
     Glycerin,           2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,          12 fluidounces.

     Weigh the phosphorus carefully in a glass-stoppered vial, and then add
the ether; agitate until the phosphorus dissolves, then add the alcohol and the
essence of peppermint; now slowly add the glycerin, stirring well, and lastly
the simple elixir.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains the one-
hundredth of a grain of phosphorus.  Elixir of phosphorus is liable to become
milky, owing to the fact that phosphorus is insoluble in water.  This formula
is essentially that of Mr. J. G. Luhn, as published in the American Journal of
Pharmacy, 1874.

219. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS.
(ELIXIR PHOSPHORUS AND NUX VOMICA. )

     Elixir of phosphorus,          16 fluidounces.
     Tincture of nux vomica,          384 minims.

     Gradually add the tincture of nux vomica to the elixir of phosphorus,
stirring well during the process.
     The elixir is also that of Mr. J. G. Luhn.  Each fluid drachm contains
one-hundredth of a grain of phosphorus and two minims of tincture of nux vomica.

220. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS WITH QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.

     Elixir of phosphorus,          8 fluidounces.
     Elixir of phosphate of quinine,     8 fluidounces.
     Strychnine,               1 1/4 grains.
     Acetic acid,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the strychnine with acetic acid in sufficient amount to effect
its solution, and then add the elixirs.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half
grain of quinine, one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine, and the two-hundredth
part of a grain of phosphorus.  This formula in substance was presented at the
meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 1881.

221.  ELIXIR OF ACETATE OF POTASSIUM.

     Acetate of potassium,          640 grains.
     Simple elixir,               15 1/2 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the acetate of potassium in the simple elixir, and filter if
necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains five grains
of acetate of potassium.
     In former editions of our work each fluidrachm contained four grains of
acetate of potassium.  We change the proportion in this edition of our work to
conform to the strength established by the National Formulary.

222.  ELIXIR OF ARSENITE OF POTASSIUM.

     Solution of arsenite of potassium
               (Fowler's solution),     256 minims.
     Simple elixir,               a sufficient quantity.
     Mix the solution of arsenite of potassium with enough simple elixir to
produce sixteen fluidounces.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two minims
of solution of arsenite of potassium. Dose, one fluidrachm (teaspoonful), which
may be cautiously increased to twice that amount.

223. ELIXIR OF ACETATE OF POTASSIUM AND BUCHU.

     Acetate of potassium,          640 grains.
     Elixir of buchu,               a sufficient amount.

     Dissolve the acetate of potassium in enough elixir of buchu to produce
sixteen fluidounces.
     Each fluidrachm represents five grains of acetate of potassium.

224. ELIXIR OF BUCHU, JUNIPER, AND ACETATE OF POTASSIUM.

     This preparation is made by parties who have advertised and created a
demand for it in certain sections of our country, and to whom the formula
rightfully belongs.  Through courtesy to these gentlemen we do not give a
process for making it.

225. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF POTASSIUM

     Bromide of potassium,          1280 grains.
     Simple elixir,               a sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the bromide of potassium in twelve fluid ounces of simple elixir,
and add to this solution enough simple elixir to bring the whole to the measure
of sixteen fluidounces
     Each teaspoonful of the finished elixir represents ten grains of potassium
bromide, and is the same in strength as that adopted by the American
Pharmaceutical Association, 1875.

226.  ELIXIR OF IODIDE OF POTASSIUM

     Iodide of potassium,          256 grains.
     Simple elixir,               a sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the iodide of potassium in enough simple elixir to produce
sixteen fluidounces, and filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of iodide of potassium.

227.  ELIXIR PROPRIETATIS.
(PARACELSUS' ELIXIR)

     Myrrh,          3 troyounces.
     Aloes,          3 troyounces.
     Saffron,          3 troyounces.
     Alcohol,          2 pints.

     Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and macerate in the alcohol fourteen
days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter.

(Supplement to London Pharmacopoeia, 1821,)

228. ELIXIR PROPRIETATIS CUM ACIDO.

     To elixir proprietatis add of aromatic sulphuric acid an amount sufficient
 to render it fairly acid.  The Supplement to the London Pharmacopoeia, 1821,
directs what in these days would be considered an unreasonable amount of acid.
(See also our formula on page 8, which is Boerhaave's original formula for
making "Elixir Proprietatis with Distilled Vinegar.")

229.  RADCLIFF'S PURGING ELIXIR.

     Jalap,          7 1/2 troyounces.
     Cape aloes,          5 troyounces.
     Gentian,          2 troyounces.
     Canella alba,          1 1/2 troyounces.
     Orange peel, bitter,     1 troyounce.
     Grains of paradise,     3 drachms.
     Scammony,          1 1/2 ounces.
     Senna,          1 1/2 ounces.
     Diluted alcohol,          16 pints

     Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, mix them with the diluted alcohol,
and macerate fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then
filter.

(Supplement to London Pharmacopoeia, 1821.)

230.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RASPBERRY.

     Fluid extract of rhatany,          1 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of cinnamon,           1/4 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of cloves,           1/4 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of allspice,           1/4 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of nutmeg,           1/4 fluidounce.
     Raspberry juice,               8 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,           a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluid extracts and triturate the mixture in a capacious mortar
with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixirpreviously mixed with the raspberry
juicestirring well, and filter.  Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
     The proportions of this elixir, essentially those we have given in our
formula, were announced in the Druggists' Circular, 1872.

231. RED ELIXIR. (RED SIMPLE ELIXIR. )

     Simple elixir, or elixir of orange, any convenient quantity.

     Color it with solution of carmine until of a distinct red color.    This
elixir is incompatible with acids and certain metallic salts, which precipitate
the coloring matter.  Red elixir is used as a flavor.

232.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RHAMNUS FRANGULA.

     Fluid extract of rhamnus frangula,      2 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of rhubarb,           2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluid extracts, and evaporate them, at a temperature not exceeding
150 F., until reduced to two fluid ounces.  Triturate this in a capacious
mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy
mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half
minims each of fluid extracts of rhubarb and rhamnus frangula.

233.  ELIXIR OF RHAMNUS PURSHIANA.
(ELIXIR OF CASCARA SAGRADA )

     Fluid extract of rhamnus purshiana,      4 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                 1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of rhamnus purshiana in a capacious mortar
with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.  Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents fifteen minims of fluid
extract of rhamnus purshiana.
     In former editions of our publication each fluidrachm of the elixir
represented seven and one-half grains of rhamnus purshiana. We have changed the
proportion to accord with the strength established by the National Formulary.

234.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RHAMNUS PURSHIANA.

     Fluid extract of rhamnus purshiana,      2 fluidounces.
     Tincture of cardamom,          30 fluidounces.
     Ammoniacal glycyrrhizin,          30 grains.
     Simple elixir,               16 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,           a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the mixed fluid extracts in a capacious mortar with ammoniacal
glycyrrhizin and carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy
mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. 
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol, and dissolve in this the citrate of
strychnine, and add the tincture of cardamom.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents about seven and one-half
 minims of fluid extract of rhamnus purshiana.

235.  ELIXIR ROBORANS WHYTTII.

     Yellow cinchona bark,      3 troyounces.
     Gentian,           1 troyounce.
     Bitter orange peel,      1 troyounce.
     Alcohol,          16 fluidounces
     Cinnamon water,           8 fluidounces.

     Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder and prepare a tincture by percolation,
using a mixture of the alcohol and cinnamon water.  This preparation is a
modern tincture, although it was once classed with elixirs.  The German
Pharmacopoeia (1872) recognizes, under the above name, the compound tincture of
cinchona.

236.  ELIXIR OF RHUBARB.

     Fluid extract of rhubarb,           2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,           a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of rhubarb in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of rhubarb.

237.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RHUBARB.

     Rhubarb,           20 troyounces.
     Cloves,            8 troyounces.
     Saffron,            8 troyounces.
     Nutmeg,           20 troyounces.
     Ether,           10 fluidounces.
     Sherry wine,          200 fluidounces.
     Diluted alcohol,           20 fluidounces.

     Mix the drugs and reduce them to a coarse powder, and macerate this in
the mixed alcohol and wine for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly
each day; then filter, and add the ether.
     This elixir is recommended as a vehicle for disguising the taste of castor
 oil, and was introduced by Mr. Bidone Carlo, who states that one part of this
elixir will remove the taste and odor from three parts of castor oil.  It was
named "elixir of rhubarb," but to avoid confusion with the regular and simple
elixir of rhubarb we have added the word compound.
(See New Remedies, 1880.)

238. ELIXIR OF RHUBARB AND COLUMBO.

     Elixir of rhubarb,     5 fluidounces.
     Elixir of columbo,     5 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,          6 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents about two minims each
of fluid extract of rhubarb and fluid extract of columbo.

239. ELIXIR OF RHUBARB AND MAGNESIA.
(ELIXIR OF RHUBARB AND MAGNESIUM SULPHATE.)

     Fluid extract of rhubarb,             4 fluidounces.
     Sulphate of magnesium,          1024 grains.
     Simple elixir,                 32 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of rhubarb with carbonate of magnesium until
of a creamy consistence, then gradually add the simple elixir, in which the
sulphate of magnesium has been previously dissolved; permit the mixture to
remain for a few hours in a closed vessel, then filter.
     Each fluidrachm contains seven and one half minims of fluid extract of
rhubarb and eight grains of sulphate of magnesium.
     Under the name elixir of rhubarb and magnesia this elixir was noticed in
New Remedies, 1877. Among the formulae introduced by Mr. G. W. Gardner to the
American Pharmaceutical Association at its meeting in Saratoga was an "elixir
of rhubarb and magnesium acetate."

240.  ELIXIR OF SALICIN.

     Salicin,          256 grains.
     Simple elixir,           12 fluidounces.
     Distilled water,            4 fluidounces.

     Boil the water and dissolve in it the salicin, and mix this solution with
the simple elixir.  Filter if necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of salicin.

241.  SACRED.ELIXIR.
(ELIXIR SACRUM.  TINCTURE RHEI ET ALOES.Ed. Pharm., 1770.)

     Rhubarb,           5 drachms.
     Aloes,           3 drachms.
     Cardamom,           2 drachms.
     Brandy,          16 fluidounces.

     Mix the drugs and reduce them to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the
brandy for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter.
(Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, 1770.)

242.  ELIXIR OF SALICYLIC ACID.

     Salicylic acid,          128 grains.
     Powdered borax,          128 grains.
     Simple elixir,           16 fluidounces.

     Triturate the salicylic acid and powdered borax together, add the simple
elixir, and when the powders are dissolved filter the liquid.  Each fluidrachm
(teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of salicylic acid.
     In March, 1881, Dr. Wolff presented a formula for making this elixir to
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, using salicylic acid, alcohol, and simple
elixir.  In our hands it failed, the salicylic acid crystallizing as soon as
the simple elixir was added to the alcoholic solution.  We have met with little
success when we have endeavored to make an elixir of this acid without using
some substance, such as borax, to act as a solvent.  Of course, bicarbonate of
sodium is not admissible, or other alkaline carbonate, or an alkali, for such
will form salts of salicylic acid.

243.  ELIXIR OF SCAMMONY.

     Scammony,          2 drachms.
     Diluted alcohol,          8 fluidounces.
Heat and set fire to the spirit, and add
     Sugar,          4 troyounces.
When it has dissolved, extinguish the flame and add
     Syrup of violets,          2 fluidounces.
(GUIBOURT.)

244. ELIXIR SALUTIS.
(ELIXIR OF HEALTH.  (COMPOUND TINCTURE OF SENNA,)

     Senna,          2 troyounces.
     Jalap,          1 troyounce.
     Coriander,            1/2 troyounce. 
     Diluted alcohol,          3 1/2 pints.

     Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the diluted
alcohol for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then
filter.            (Edinburgh New Dispensatory, 1818.)

245. ELIXIR OF SENNA.

     Fluid extract of senna,      2 fluidounces
     Simple elixir,          14 fluidounces
     Alcohol,            1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,     a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of senna in a capacious mortar with carbonate
of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add
the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the
alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir contains the medicinal principles
of seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of senna.

246. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF SENNA.

     Fluid extract of senna,           4 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of taraxacum,           1 fluidounce.
     Compound tincture of cardamom,       1/2 fluidounce.
     Simple elixir,               10 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluid extracts and tincture, and triturate with carbonate of
magnesium until of a creamy consistence, then gradually add the simple elixir,
and filter.
     Each fluidrachm contains seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of
senna and about four minims of fluid extract of taraxacum.
(See American Practitioner, 1875.)

247.  SIMPLE: ELIXIR.
(WHITE ELIXIR.)

     Oil of sweet orange,           1 fluidrachm.
     Oil of lemon,                 1/2 fluidrachm.
     Distilled water,               41 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               13 fluidounces.
     Sugar,               32 troyounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          one two-ounce block.

     Dissolve the sugar, without heat, in the distilled water, and then mix
with this solution nine fluidounces of alcohol.  Dissolve the oils in three
fluidounces of alcohol, and slowly add the liquid, stirring constantly, to the
solution of sugar.  Then crush the block of carbonate of magnesium between the
hands, permitting the powder to gradually scatter itself over the surface of
the liquid and settle to the bottom of the vessel.  After standing half an
hour, stir it well and transfer the mixture to a well-closed vessel, and permit
it to remain for six or eight hours, stirring it occasionally, and then filter
it through a double filter paper, returning the first portion and until it
passes clear, and then filter it. Lastly, add the remaining fluidounce of
alcohol.
     In reviewing the above formula it may seem to the reader that we are
unreasonably precise regarding certain details.  If necessary, the operator may
hurry the operation, but it will be found advantageous in the long run to
follow our directions.  The suggestion to crush the magnesium carbonate between
the hands, instead of grating it through a sieve or powdering it in a mortar,
is made because we find that process advantageous.  Permitting it to fall over
the surface of the liquid facilitates the absorption of undissolved oils which
may be present, especially if the oils of orange and lemon are sophisticated.
     Simple elixir, as made according to the above formula, is very nicely
flavored and acceptable. If the operator desires, he can substitute the simple
elixir of the Pharmacopoeia or our elixir of orange.

248.  ELIXIR OF ARSENITE OF SODIUM.
(ELIXIR OF ARSENIC. )

     Solution of arsenite of sodium,     256 minims.
     Simple elixir,               a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the solution of arsenite of sodium with enough simple elixir to
produce sixteen fluidounces.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful:) of the finished elixir contains two minims
of solution of arsenite of sodium.
     The dose is one fluidrachm (teaspoonful), which may be very cautiously
increased if desirable. Use with care.

249. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF SODIUM.

     Bromide of sodium,     1280 grains.
     Simple elixir,            16 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the bromide of sodium in the simple elixir, and filter if
necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains ten grains
of bromide of sodium.
      In former editions of our publication the strength was two grains of
bromide of sodium to the fluidrachm.  We conform in this edition to the strength
 established by the National Formulary.

250. ELIXIR OF HYPOPHOSPHITE OF SODIUM.

     Hypophosphite of sodium,          256 grains.
     Acetic acid,                20 grains
     Simple elixir,               enough to make 16 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the hypophosphites of sodium and the citric acid in the simple
elixir by agitation.  Each fluidrachm contains two grains of hypophosphite of
sodium.

251. ELIXIR OF IODIDE OF SODIUM.

     Iodide of sodium,          256 grains.
     Simple elixir,           16 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the iodide of sodium in the simple elixir, and filter if
necessary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains
of iodide of sodium.

252. ELIXIR OF SALICYLATE OF SODIUM.

     Salicylate of sodium,          640 grains.
     Simple elixir,               enough to make 16 fluidounces.

   Dissolve the salicylate of sodium in the simple elixir by agitation, and
filter if necessary. Each fluidrachm contains five grains of salicylate of
sodium.

253 . SQUIRE'S ELIXIR.

     Opium,          4 troyounces.
     Camphor,          1 troyounce.
     Cochineal,          1 troyounce.
     Oil fennel seed,          2 fluidrachms.
     Tincture serpentaria,     16 fluidounces.
     Spirit anise,          16 pints.
     Water,          2 pints

     Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder.  Having previously dissolved the oil
of fennel seed in the spirit of anise and mixed this with the water, add the
powdered drugs and the tincture of serpentaria. Macerate fourteen days, stirring
 the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter.
(Supplement to the London Pharmacopoeia, 1821.)

     The original formula in the above work contains six ounces of " aurum
musivum " (sulphuret of tin), which we omit.

254. ST. HUBERT'S HUNTERS' ELIXIR.
(ELIXIR DE ST. HUBERT POUR LES CHASSEURS.)

     Carbolic acid,           1 troyounce.
     Alcohol,          25 troyounces.

     Mix them together.
     Each fluidrachm contains about two and one-fourth minims of carbolic acid.
(CASSELLMAN, from New Remedies, 1878.)

255. ELIXIR OF STILLINGIA.

     Fluid extract of stillingia,           2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounce.
     Alcohol,                 1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of stillingia in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.

256.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF STILLINGIA.

     Compound fluid extract of stil
          lingia,          4 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,          14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,           1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,     a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the compound fluid extract of stillingia with carbonate of
magnesium in sufficient amount to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the
simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the
alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains fifteen
minims of compound fluid extract of stillingia.

257.  STOMACHIC ELIXIR.
(ELIXIR STOMACHIC)

     Gentian,           2 troyounces.
     Curaao orange peel,      1 troyounce.
     Virginia snakeroot,       1/2 troyounce.
     Cochineal,          30 grains.
     Brandy,           2 pints.

     Mix the drugs and reduce them to a coarse powder, and macerate this in
the brandy for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then
filter.

258.  STOUGHTON'S ELIXIR

     Gentian,          2 1/2 troyounces.
     Serpentaria,          1 troyounce.
     Bitter orange peel,     1 1/2 troyounces.
     Calamus,           1/4 troyounces.
     Diluted alcohol,          6 pints.

     Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the diluted
alcohol for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then
filter.
(Supplement to the London Pharmacopoeia.)

269.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF STRYCHNINE.

     Strychnine,           1 1/2 grains.
     Simple elixir,          16 fluidounces.
     Valerianic acid,          a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the strychnine in a mortar and add two fluid ounces of simple
elixir, and then enough valerianic acid to effect the solution of the
strychnine.  Lastly, add the remainder of the simple elixir.
     The formula is essentially that presented by Prof. C. Lewis Diehl to the
Louisville College of Pharmacy, excepting that we have made the proportion of
strychnine conform to that established by the National Formulary.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one
hundredth of a grain of strychnine.

260. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF SUMBUL.
(COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MUSK-ROOT.)

     Fluid extract of sumbul,          1 fluidounce.
     Elixir of valerianate of ammonium,     9 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               4 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               2 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of sumbul in a Wedgewood or porcelain mortar
with enough magnesium carbonate to bring it to a creamy consistence, then
gradually add the elixir of valerianate of ammonium and simple elixir, and
filter; mix the alcohol with the filtrate.
(New Remedies, 1880.)
     If this elixir is prepared as directed in the works where the writer has
observed it, by simply mixing the liquid ingredients, an unsightly mixture
results, providing the fluidextract of sumbul was made with alcohol and was not
an aqueous infusion.  Hence the directions we have given are for the purpose of
producing a presentable liquid.
     Each fluidrachm represents about four minims of fluid extract of sumbul
and thirty-six minims of elixir of valerianate of ammonium.

261.  ELIXIR OF TAR

     Pine tar,          5 troyounces.
     Sugar,          15 troyounces.
     Diluted alcohol,          100 fluidounces.

     Triturate the tar and sugar together, then with the alcohol, and filter.
      This was suggested by Magnes Lahens in the Italian Chemical Gazette.   In
reality, it is solution of tar in diluted alcohol, and does not conform to the
modern American elixir.

262.  ELIXIR OF TAR COMPOUND.

     Wine of tar,          16 fluidounces.
     Syrup of wild cherry,     4 fluidounces.
      Syrup of Tolu,          4 fluidounces.
     Methylic alcohol,          1 fluidounce.
     Sulphate of morphine,     4 grains.

     Dissolve the sulphate of morphine in the wine of tar, and then add the
other ingredients.
(Non-officinal formulae in local use, compiled and published by the joint
committee of the Medical and Pharmaceutical Associations of the District of
Columbia.)

263. ELIXIR OF THUJA OCCIDENTALIS.
(ELIXIR OF ARBOR VITAE. )

     Fluid extract of thuja occidentalis,     2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,               2 fluidounces.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of thuja with carbonate of magnesium until of
a creamy consistence, then gradually add the simple elixir, filter, and add the
alcohol.  A formula for elixir of thuja occidentalis was proposed by Mr. W. H.
Laws in New Remedies, 1877. This is one of the class of substances which, in our
 opinion, cannot be satisfactorily exhausted by means of an aqueous menstruum.
The characteristic principles of thuja are oily and resinous, and these are
largely precipitated by any aqueous liquid.
     Each fluidrachm of this elixir represents, less the substances
precipitated by the simple elixir, seven and one-half minims of fluid extract
of thuja occidentalis.

264. ELIXIR OF VALERIAN.

     Fluid extract of valerian,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of valerian in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir will contain of seven and one-half
minims of fluid extract of valerian such an amount as the menstruum is capable
of dissolving.

265. MYNFICHT'S ELIXIR OF VITRIOL.

     This ancient elixir has been modified, and deservedly, time and again,
until, excepting the sulphuric acid, it scarcely resembles its former self.  It
was made by the London and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias, preceding 1770, as follows:

     Cinnamon,          3 drachms.
     Ginger,          3 drachms.
     Cloves,          3 drachms.
     Calamus,          1 troyounce.
     Galanga,          1 1/2 troyounce.
     Sage,                1/2 troyounce.
     Peppermint,           1/2 troyounce.
     Cubebs,          2 drachms.
     Nutmeg,          2 drachms.
     Aloes,          1 drachm
     Citron peel,          1 drachm

        Reduce these ingredients to a powder, to which add of

     Sugar candy,          3 troyounces.
     Alcohol,          1 1/2 pints.
     Oil of vitriol,          1 pint.

     Digest them together for twenty days, and filter the tincture for use.
     The Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, 1770, improves upon this process, modifying
it until the product resembles our former aromatic sulphuric acid (elixir
vitriol), U. S. P., the proportion of sulphuric acid being reduced very
considerably.  Those who make "elixir of vitriol" at the present time will find
in our Pharmacopoeia of 1882 a process which, in our opinion, is very much
superior to any heretofore suggested, and this old formula is simply a
curiosity.

266.  SWEET ELIXIR OF VITRIOL.
(ELIXIR VITRIOLI DULCE.)

     *Aromatic tincture,          1 pint.
     **Dulcified spirit of vitriol,     8 troyounces
        Mix them together.
(New Dispensatory, London, and London Pharmacopoeia, 1770.)

* AROMATIC TINCTURE.
     Cinnamon,          6 drachms.
     Cardamom seeds,          3 drachms.
     Long pepper,          2  drachms.
     Ginger,          2 drachms.
     Diluted alcohol,          2 pints.
        Digest without heat, and then strain.London Pharmacopoeia, 1770.

**DULCIFIED SPIRIT OF VITRIOL.This was made by distilling a mixture of
sulphuric acid and alcohol.  Its substitute now is Hoffmann's Anodyne, which
even at that day the elixir was designed to imitate.  We quote: " It is not
essentially different from the celebrated anodyne liquor of Hoffmann."New
Dispensatory, 1770.

267.  VIGANI'S VOLATILE ELIXIR OF VITRIOL.

     Dulcified spirit of vitriol,          32 troyounces.
     Oil of peppermint,           1/2 troyounce.
     Oil of lemon,               2 fluidrachms.
     Oil of nutmeg,               1 fluidrachm.

     Gradually drop the oils into the spirit and mix the whole well together.
     This preparation is a simplification of Vigani's complex and quaint
formula, and was accepted as a substitute by the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia.  Of
it the New Dispensatory, London, 1770, remarks: "A medicine of this kind was
formerly in great esteem under the title of Vigani's Volatile Elixir of Vitriol,
 the composition of which was first communicated to the public in the
Pharmacopoeia Reformata."

268. ELIXIR OF WAHOO.

     Fluid extract of wahoo,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of wahoo with carbonate of magnesium in amount
 sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir,
stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
     Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir will contain the medicinal
principles of such an amount of seven and one half minims of fluid extract of
wahoo as can be retained in solution by the menstruum.

269.  ELIXIR OF YERBA SANTA.

     Fluid extract of yerba santa,          2 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the fluid extract of yerba santa in a capacious mortar with
carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the
filtrate with the alcohol.
     This elixir has been recommended as a vehicle for administering quinine,
and is said to disguise its bitterness.  A process was devised by Mr. Jas. S.
McCleary whereby aromatics were added, and which we give in substance under
compound elixir of yerba santa. Yerba santa contains a peculiar sweet astringent
 principle which may precipitate the quinine, thus rendering it insoluble. 
Care should be taken that the mixture be not filtered after the addition of the
quinine.

270.  COMPOUND ELIXIR OF YERBA SANTA.

     Fluid extract of yerba santa,          2 fluidounces.
     Fluid extract of sweet orange peel,      1/2 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of cinnamon,           1/2 fluidounce.
     Fluid extract of cloves,           1/4 fluidounce.
     Simple elixir,               14 fluidounces.
     Red saunders,               10 grains.
     Carbonate of magnesium,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the fluid extracts, add the red saunders, and triturate in a capacious
 mortar with sufficient carbonate of magnesium to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.  This preparation
is used for disguising the taste of quinine.  (See our remarks under elixir of
yerba santa.)

271.  ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF ZINC.

     Valerianate of zinc,          128 grains.
     Distilled water,                 6 fluidounces.
     Simple elixir,                10 fluidounces.

     Triturate the valerianate of zinc with the water, and then add the simple
elixir.  When solution of the salt results filter the liquid. Should the
valerianate of zinc refuse to dissolve, cautiously drop in a little hydrochloric
 acid, care being taken that only enough to effect its solution is added.
     Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain
of valerianate of zinc.
     In former editions of our publication the strength was one-half grain of
valerianate of zinc in each fluidrachm.  We change in this edition to one grain
in order to conform to the strength established by the National Formulary.


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                                    PART SECOND.
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FLAVORING EXTRACTS, ESSENCES,
FLAVORED SYRUPS,
COLORING LIQUIDS,
AND OTHER
SODA-WATER APPLIANCES.

INTRODUCTION.
     Apprenticed in 1863 to W. J. M. Gordon & Brother, pharmacists, of
Cincinnati, a goodly share of my time for a considerable period was devoted to
the care of the soda fountain.  As part of my duties, when I had advanced
sufficiently, it devolved upon me to make the syrups and "charge the fountain";
and those who know Mr. Gordon recognize the fact that strict attention to
business was a necessity with an apprentice in his charge.  Neither expense nor
pains were to be spared in details connected with the manufacture of his syrups,
 and neither excuse nor apology would prevent a reprimand when the boy was
unlucky enough to need one.  Necessity demanded, therefore, that as "soda boy"
I should attend strictly to business; and, as I recall those days, I earnestly
and heartily thank Mr. Gordon for his good judgment in demanding of me what I
considered at that time unnecessary exactitude in such little matters as
attention to details of the soda fountain.  This discipline extended and
continued, step by step, until I reached and stood behind the prescription
counter; and now in formulating this little monograph, as the formulae recorded
herein come successively to my mind, I seem to live over again those early days
of "soda-water" apprenticeship.
     Since that time I have continuously contributed to others formulae learned
 in those days and thereafter, both for making flavoring extracts and soda
syrups, and have sought the experiences of others, but, so far as I can
remember, this is the first appearance in print of any of the formulae.  I can
say to the reader, therefore, that many of the formulae of this work are such
as were used successfully years ago and are now prized in numbers of stores;
some of them came into my possession during my apprenticeship, others I have
formulated in after-years, and many have been given me by recent acquaintances
and friends of the professionfor I have not been actively engaged as a
dispenser for some years.  Necessarily, however, there is a general similarity
in formulae of this description.
     I may add that, when it became evident that this work was to be written,
only a few days were at my command, and I had no opportunity to consult current
literature on the subject.  The remarks I make and the formulae embraced herein
are dictated to a stenographer, being such as are part of my laboratory
processes or come to memory spontaneously; and yet, since a collection of such
formulae necessarily covers an experience of considerable time, their several
values may be greater than though I should at tempt to collate from the printed
work of others.                    J. U. LLOYD.CINCINNATI, November 30th, 1891.

SODA-WATER APPLIANCES.
     At a moderately distant day only, in the past, a good com-plement of soda
syrups could be found in a dozen decanter-like bottles arranged beneath the
counter.  Now such a method of supplying syrups to a public would be viewed as
a curiosity.  Then a silver-plated urn as a fountain solicited not a little
admiration; now a fortune is often invested in rare marbles, beautifully
ornamented that for tastiness, richness of design, and elaborate finish can
rarely be surpassed by costly furniture in the mansions of those who have little
 to do but lavish their wealth on fine furniture. It may be safely asserted, we
think, that in no direction connected with pharmacy has there been a greater
degree of progress than in the elaboration of the soda-water fountain, as shown
by its evolution from the simple nozzle and stopcock of former years to the
magnificent designs of the present. It seemed as though manufacturers each year
had certainly reached perfection, and yet each season witnessed the appearance
of new designs and conveniences formerly unknown.
     Some of us have ever considered such investments to be unnecessary; some
of us still believe such adjuncts to be in excusable innovations on the
apothecary shop; and yet the fact confronts us that those who strive to please
the eye and the taste of the public by such modern conveniences as are embraced
in rich fountains and pleasant surround ings, thrive better, as a rule, than
others who adhere to cold, bare walls and the scant fixture accompaniments of
former years.
     The manufacture of soda fountains has evolved itself into a great
industry.  Manufacturers are amply able to suit the taste of any purchaser, and
suggestions from our selves or other outsiders concer-ning styles and designs
are superfluous.  The manufacturers can help the purchaser to select to the best
advantage, and they have a ripe expe-rience in this direction that enables them
to say just what style and design promises to be most appropriate in each
locality.
     Of course business judgment is necessary to determine the possi-bilities
of returns from such investments, and there are localities in which expenditures
 of this description cannot prove remunerative; and yet, in our opinion, it is
conclusively shown that under favorable condi-tions a richly designed fountain
and savory surroundings bring business to the store and largely add to the
prosperity of its owner. The medicine trade only, including the prescription
business, even in our large cities, is now seldom sufficient to enable an
apothecary to pay the rent of central or prominent locations, and if the
druggist proposes to succeed he must, however distasteful it may be, grasp the
present and let go of the past.

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                         FLAVORING EXTRACTS AND ESSENCES.
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

FLAVORING EXTRACTS.

     The pharmacist is expected to make these preparations both for his own
use and to meet a trade demand, and the artful blending of ethers and flavors
in the form of pleasant soda-water syrups often induces a good business and is
directly remunerative.  Many pharmacists find the "soda water" trade to be an
aid also to business professionally, introducing patrons and furthering an
acquaintance that results in both pleasant social and monetary returns.  In
these days of close competition and shrewd business management, it behooves the
apothecary to exert himself in every legitimate way to retain his business, and
in many instances the addition of these side issues is a matter of self-
existence, not of choice.
     While all must admit that the undue prominence of a counter for dispensing
 "beverages" is not an ideal of the apothecary of the old school, and is
distasteful to many who do not at present feel the business necessity of such a
feature, we must also admit that the modern idea of a drug store is very
different from that of the past.    The making of pills, powders, plasters, and
many other pharmaceutical preparations and compounds has passed largely into
the hands of manufacturers.  The former profits on proprietary preparations and
perfumes have disappeared in the rivalries of dry-goods houses, grocers, and
"cutters," who make leaders of such "hand-me-downs" and sell them at cost. 
These and other conditions that now confront the apothecary make it necessary
that he should often deviate from former methods, if he expects to thrive in
the face of modern competition.  Attention, therefore, to such subjects as the
making of flavors, both for sale and for shop use, has come to be a part of the
duties of most pharmacists. It is believed that the following pages will give
information enough concerning the making of flavors and syrups to enable an
inexperienced person to satisfactorily conduct a soda stand.

FRUIT ESSENCES.

     We have included among our flavoring extracts such substances as are
usually called for, as flavors, at the soda counter.  Some of them are also
sometimes known as essences, and as examples thereof we may name raspberry,
strawberry, and pineapple.  We do not feel that these artificial flavors merit
a separate classification, although perhaps the term essence may be more
appropriately applied to such as are compounded of ethers and volatile oils
than the term extract.    Various mixtures of ethers are made by experts, and
denominated by such fanciful titles as essence or extract of pear, plum,
quince, currant, etc., and are to be used as flavors in making syrups.  We
believe, however, that since the introduction of the popular commercial fruit
juices these artificial flavors are being displaced in favor of the latter.  In
our opinion the resemblance of many of them to fruits of the names under which
they appear is highly imaginary, but as they are used generally when the fruit
is out of season, and by a class of persons neither disposed nor qualified to
be critical, there seems to be no complaint.
     We will add that these essences may be purchased in the general drug
market from dealers in essential oils, and those who propose to carry a full
line of rare syrups can obtain these rare fruit flavors with less trouble than
they can the ethers that are used in compounding them, and at as low a price as
they can buy the ethers and mix them together.

S-1.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ALLSPICE.

     Oil of allspice,               2 fluidrachms.
     Freshly powdered allspice,          2 ounces.
     *Alcohol,               a sufficient amount.

     Rub the oil with the powdered allspice and pack the mixture in a
percolator prepared for percolation.  Cover with alcohol (using about twenty
fluidounces), and when the percolate appears close the exit of the percolator
and macerate for a period of twenty-four hours; then percolate slowly until one
pint of percolate is obtained.  The strength may be increased or diminished to
suit the taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction.

*Much commercial alcohol is contaminated with fusel oil and other volatile
impurities to such an extent as to impair the flavor of syrups and flavoring
extracts.  Whenever, with some exceptions, alcohol is directed to be used in this
work, the operator will find it best to employ deodorized alcohol.
     In some casesas, for example, the harsh, penetrating flavors of almond,
peach, sarsaparilla, etc.this precaution is unnecessary, commercial alcohol of
good quality answering every purpose.

S-2. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ALMONDS (PEACH).
     This extract is made of oil of bitter almonds, but it should be remembered
 that it is a poison.

     Oil of bitter almonds,     1 fluidrachm.
     Diluted alcohol,          15 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the oil of almonds in one ounce of alcohol and add thereto the
diluted alcohol.  Shake well together.
     This formula may be strengthened or weakened in accordance with the will
of the pharmacist.  There is no established proportion, that which we suggest
being, in our opinion, suitable for most purposes.  Extract of almond and
extract of peach are identical.

S-3.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF BANANA.

     This is usually made extemporaneously of mixtures of other flavoring
extracts, a satisfactory formula being as follows:

     Flavoring extract of pineapple,      1/2 fluidounce.
     Flavoring extract of vanilla,           1/2 fluidounce.
     Flavoring extract of strawberry, un
          colored,               15 fluidounces.

     Mix them together, and if necessary filter through a little carbonate of
magnesium, and then color to suit the taste with a mixture of cochineal color
and tincture of curcuma.

S-4. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF BLACK PEPPER.

     Recently powdered black pepper,..2 ounces.
     Alcohol, water,          of each a sufficient amount.

     Pack the powder in a percolator prepared for percolation. Cover with
alcohol (using about twenty fluidounces), and when the percolate appears close
the exit of the percolator and macerate for a period of twenty-four hours. 
Then percolate slowly until one pint of percolate is obtained.  The strength
may be increased or diminished to suit the taste of the operator, the quality
desired governing in this direction.  The diluted alcohol may also be replaced
with alcohol to advantage, if the question of economy is not a factor.

S-5.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CAPSICUM.

     Fluid extract of capsicum,          1 fluidounce.
     Alcohol,               15 fluidounces

     Mix them together and color with curcuma modified with cochineal, to suit
the taste.

S-6  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CELERY.

     Celery seed,          2 ounces.
     Alcohol,          a sufficient amount.

     Powder the celery seed in an iron mortar, and pack the mixture in a
percolator prepared for percolation.  Cover with alcohol (using about twenty
fluidounces), and when the percolate appears close the exit of the percolator
and macerate for a period of twenty-four hours.  Then percolate slowly until one
pint of percolate is obtained. The strength may be increased or diminished to
suit the taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction
     This is one of the questionable recent additions, and has been introduced
since the fashion of taking "nervines" and tonics came into vogue among patrons
of the soda counter.
     In our experience alcohol only should be employed in extracting celery
seed, the use of diluted alcohol producing a preparation that loses its
brilliancy and casts a precipitate.

S-7.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CHOCOLATE.

     Powdered chocolate,          4 ounces.
     Syrup, water,     .......................of each a sufficient amount.

     Rub the chocolate in a mortar with syrup gradually added, until reduced
to a cream, then add syrup enough to bring to the measure of eight fluidounces,
after which add one pint of water.
     Pour the mixture into a pan and bring it to a brisk boil, and then allow
to cool.
     This extract is of uncertain quality, owing to the variation in commercial
 chocolates.  It is never transparent and is likely to deposit considerable
sediment.  It will ferment in hot weather, and must either be made in small
amounts or put into small bottles that are well filled and kept in a cool place.
     Some persons flavor extract of chocolate with vanilla, but in our
experience it is not always acceptable.

S-8. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CLOVES.

     Oil of cloves,               2 fluidrachms.
     Freshly powdered cloves,          2 ounces.
     Alcohol,               a sufficient amount.

     Rub the oil with the powdered cloves and pack the mixture in a percolator
prepared for percolation.  Cover with alcohol (using about twenty fluidounces),
and when the percolate appears close the exit of the percolator and macerate
for a period of twenty four hours.  Then percolate slowly until one pint of
percolate is obtained.  The strength may be increased or diminished to suit the
taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction.

S-9.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CINNAMON

     Oil of cinnamon (Ceylon preferred),     2 fluidrachms.
     Alcohol, diluted alcohol,          of each a sufficient quantity.

     Dissolve the oil in eight ounces of alcohol, add enough diluted alcohol
to produce a permanent cloudiness, and then bring to the measure of a pint with
alcohol.  Color with tincture of curcuma modified by a little cochineal color
and caramel.  The strength may be increased or diminished to suit the taste of
the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction.  The diluted
alcohol may also be replaced with alcohol to advantage, if the question of
economy is not a factor.

S-10. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF COFFEE.

     Freshly roasted Java coffee,          8 ounces.
     Alcohol and water mixed, in the propor
        tion of alcohol 12, water 4,     a sufficient amount.

     Powder the coffee coarsely, moisten with the mixed alcohol and water, and
pack in a previously prepared, suitable percolator. Cover the powder with the
menstruum (about twenty ounces), and when the percolate appears close the exit
and allow the coffee to macerate twenty-four hours, then continue the
percolation until one pint is obtained.
     The remarks we have made concerning the quality of chocolate will apply
also to coffee.  The process we commend produces an extract that represents the
coffee very accurately, and in our opinion the addition of syrup and glycerin
is undesirable.

S-11. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF GINGER.

     Jamaica ginger, freshly powdered,     2 ounces.
     Alcohol,               a sufficient amount.

     Pack the powder in a percolator prepared for percolation. Cover with
alcohol (using about twenty fluidounces), and when the percolate appears close
the exit of the percolator and macerate for a period of twenty-four hours. 
Then percolate slowly until one pint of percolate is obtained.  The strength
may be increased or diminished to suit the taste of the operator, the quality
desired governing in this direction.  The diluted alcohol may also be replaced
with alcohol.

S-12. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF GINGER (SOLUBLE).

     Fluid extract of ginger (U. S. P.),     4 fluidounces.
     Magnesium carbonate, water, alcohol,
                         of each a sufficient amount.

     Evaporate the fluid extract to one fluidounce, add enough magnesium
carbonate to form a creamy mixture, then water to bring to the measure of eight
fluidounces, rubbing well together, and filter.  To the filtrate add enough
alcohol to make a total of sixteen fluidounces. Color. if desirable, with
caramel.
     Some persons wish a hot peppery taste, and this is made by using a few
drops of tincture of capsicum. The operator can determine the necessity for
this addition and modify the extract to suit the whim of his patrons.

FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF LEMON.

     The quality of these extracts is governed by the freshness and quality of
the oil of lemon employed in making them, for, as a rule, the extract of lemon
used in flavoring is made from the oil.  If the oil be old, it is likely to
acquire a turpentine-like odor; and even though of moderate age, it often loses
its fresh lemon sweetness and becomes harsh.  Oil of lemon, like vanilla beans,
may be obtained in commerce of different qualities and at different prices. 
Those proposing to make flavoring extracts of lemon from the oil should pay
special attention to its quality.  There is little economy in purchasing cheap
oil of lemon. At the present time it is possible to obtain this oil (hand-
pressed is the best) of unquestionable purity.  The pharmacist may, as a rule,
depend upon the statement made by the jobbing druggist concerning the quality
of the oil, and, if he is willing to pay the price demanded for a first-class
oil, he can readily obtain it.  We will add that it is not always possible
(without great experience) to prejudge the value of oil of lemon by the odor. 
Upon the contrary, it is possible for an oil of lemon that has a very pleasant
odor to produce an extract that shows evidence of turpentine, especially after
having been mixed with syrup.

S-13. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON, GOOD (FROM THE OIL).

     Oil of lemon,          1 fluidounce
     Alcohol,          15 fluidounces.

     Mix them together, and after a few days filter if a precipitate forms. 
Then color to suit the taste with a little tincture of curcuma.

S-14. FLAVORING; EXTRACT OF LEMON, CHEAP (FROM THE OIL) .

     Oil of lemon,           1/2 fluidounce.
     Alcohol, diluted alcohol,
                                of each a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the oil of lemon with eight fluidounces of alcohol, then add diluted
alcohol until a cloudiness appears, after which add of alcohol a sufficient
quantity to make sixteen fluidounces.  Then color to suit the taste by the
addition of a sufficient amount of tincture of curcuma.

S-15. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON, CHEAP (FROM THE OIL).

     Oil of lemon,           1/2 fluidounce.
     Diluted alcohol,          12 fluidounces.
     Alcohol,          a sufficient quantity.

     Rub the oil of lemon in a mortar with carbonate of magnesium in quantity
sufficient to form a cream, then add the diluted alcohol and filter.  To the
filtrate add enough alcohol to bring to the measure of sixteen fluidounces, and
color to suit the taste with a sufficient amount of tincture of curcuma.

S-16.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON.

     Grate off the outer rind of four lemons.  Put this into a wide-mouth
bottle and pour upon it a pint of alcohol, and add thereto one-half fluidounce
of fresh oil of lemon.  Macerate, with occasional shaking, for four days, and
filter. color the filtrate to suit the taste with a sufficient amount of
tincture of curcuma.

S-17. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON (STRENGTHENED).

     To a pint of any of the foregoing flavoring extracts of lemon add one
fluidrachm of oil of lemongrass.  This is a pleasant addition in some instances,
 as there are persons who find the mixture of lemon and lemongrass to form a
gratifying flavor.  However, in our opinion, the extract made with a prime
quality of oil of lemon is not excelled.

S-18.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF NECTAR.

     This is one of the fanciful titles that have been given to a soda water
syrup that is quite popular. The following formula produces a mixture that
gives general satisfaction.

     Flavoring extract of vanilla,          3 fluidounces.
     Flavoring extract of lemon,          6 fluidounces.
     Flavoring extract of orange,          4 fluidounces.
     Flavoring extract of strawberry,3 fluidounces.

     Mix these together, and, if necessary, filter through a little carbonate
of magnesium.

S-19.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF NECTARINE.

     Flavoring extract of lemon,          4 fluidounces.
     Flavoring extract of bitter almonds,     2 fluidounces.
     Flavoring extract of orange,          4 fluidounces.
     Flavoring extract of rose,          2 fluidounces.
     Flavoring extract of vanilla,          4 fluidounces.
     Cochineal color,               a sufficient amount.

     Mix the extracts and color to suit the taste with cochineal color.  The
proportions of the ingredients of this extract may be varied, if the operator
desires, for the combination is purely fanciful.

S-20. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF NUTMEG.

     Oil of nutmeg,          2 fluidrachms.
     Nutmegs freshly powdered,     2 ounces.
     Alcohol,          a sufficient quantity.

     Rub the oil with the powdered nutmeg and pack the mixture in a percolator
prepared for percolation.  Cover with alcohol (using about twenty fluidounces),
and when the percolate appears close the exit of the percolator and macerate
for a period of twenty-four hours. Then percolate slowly until one pint of
percolate is obtained.  The strength may be increased or diminished to suit the
taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction.

FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF ORANGE.

     All that we have said concerning oil of lemon may be repeated with
reference to oil of orange.  Indeed, oil of orange is the more delicate of the
two, and it is more difficult to obtain a prime quality of oil of sweet orange
than a prime quality of lemon oil. However, the drug market. at the present
time furnishes, for those who are willing to pay the price, a delicious oil of
orange that in our experience can be used in the making of an extract of orange
that will compare favorably with, or even be superior to, an extract made from
the fresh rind of the fruit. It is altogether a question of quality, which may
be determined by the price that the purchaser is willing to pay for the oil, as
well as by the judgment of the jobber who furnishes him with it.  In our
experience there is no difficulty at the present time in obtaining an oil of
orange of unquestionable quality, and we have reason to believe that this is
possible in all parts of the country.  Oil of orange, like oil of lemon, should
be fresh, and purchasers should supply themselves with only enough to last a
moderate period; overstocks are dangerous by reason of the molecular changes
that occur, resulting in the formation of turpentine-like odors.

S-21. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (GOOD).

     Add one fluidounce of sweet oil of orange to fifteen fluid ounces of
alcohol, and color the mixture to suit the taste with tincture of curcuma
modified with a little cochineal color.  The manipulator should bear in mind,
in the making of flavoring extract of orange, that the demand is for an extract
of a dark-yellow color, whereas in making an extract. of lemon the demand is
for an extract of a much lighter color.  The various shades can easily be made
with different proportions of curcuma tincture and cochineal.

S-22. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (CHEAP).

     Oil of orange,           1/2 fluidounce.
     Alcohol, diluted alcohol,     of each a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the oil of orange with eight fluidounces of diluted alcohol, shaking
until a permanent milkiness results in the mixture.  To this add sufficient
alcohol to bring the whole to a measure of sixteen fluidounces.  Color with
tincture of curcuma modified with cochineal color, to suit, and filter, after
which allow the mixture to stand four days.

S-23.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (CHEAP).

     Oil of orange,          1 fluidounce.
     The grated rind of four oranges.
     Diluted alcohol,          a sufficient quantity.

     Put the grated outer rind of the oranges into a wide mouth bottle and
pour upon it twelve ounces of diluted alcohol.  Then, having added the oil of
orange to the remaining four ounces of diluted alcohol, mix this solution
therewith.  After four days filter the mixture. Color the filtrate to suit with
tincture of curcuma modified with cochineal

S-24. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (CHEAP).

     Cover the peelings of oranges with alcohol, and after eight or ten days
filter the liquid.  This furnishes an extract of orange that, while it is made
from the fruit, is in our opinion much inferior to the extract of orange that
is made from a good quality of oil of orange.  The odor is not as grateful to
the taste, and it will not give the satisfaction to patrons that the extract of
true oil of orange does.

FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF PINEAPPLE.

     Extract of pineapple is a favorite with some persons, although most
people select one of the preceding flavors.  It may be said that the majority
prefer lemon, vanilla, and orange, but next, perhaps, to these comes pineapple.
 Extract of pineapple is not made from the fruit, neither is it made from the
oil nor a product of the fruit  It is an association of ether flavors which
reminds one of the odor of pineapples.  The base of the pineapple extract is
butyric ether, to which are added other substances to modify its harshness.

S-25. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF PINEAPPLE (STRONG).

     Butyric ether           2 fluidounces.,
     Diluted alcohol,           14 fluidounces.

     Mix them together and flavor to suit the taste with a little tincture of
curcuma, and modify with enough cochineal color to over-come the bright yellow
of the curcuma.

S-26. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF PINEAPPLE (MODIFIED).

     Butyric ether,          1 fluidounce.
     Acetic,          1 fluidounce.
     Chloroform,          1 fluidrachm.
     Diluted alcohol,          a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the ingredients and color with sufficient tincture of curcuma, and
modify by the addition of enough cochineal color to remove the bright yellow of
the curcuma.

S-27. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF PINEAPPLE (CHEAP).

     Cheaper extract of pineapple may be made by diluting either of the
preceding extracts with diluted alcohol.

S-28. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF RASPBERRY.

     That which we have written concerning artificial flavoring extract of
strawberry may be applied to the flavoring extract of raspberry.  While some
formulae that we have seen are complex and demand the use of rare ethers, we
have not observed that the products more nearly resemble the flavor of fresh
raspberries than an extract made of cheaper ingredients.  We have not as yet
found any mixture that will more than remind us of the rich fragrance of the
ripe, red raspberry.  Indeed, in the raspberry season the artificial imitations
of this fruit are far from being satisfactory, although they may be used when
the fruit is out of season.  The formula for extract of strawberry is usually
adopted, we believe, as that of extract of raspberry, the difference being that
the color is intensified in the raspberry.  However, we have found the following
process to give satisfaction in a commercial way, and we therefore introduce it
as a formula for flavoring extract of raspberry:

     Fluid extract of orris root,           2 fluidounces.
     Acetic ether,                1/2 fluidounce.
     Oil of cognac,               10 drops.
     Butyric ether,                5 drops.
     Diluted alcohol,               16 fluidounces.

     Mix the ingredients, color to a dark red with tincture of cochineal, and
after a few days filter if necessary.

FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF ROSE.

     This preparation should manifestly not be designed as the flavor of a
beverage.  Although rose is a pleasant perfume, as a flavoring for food or of a
drink it seems to be out of place.  However, there is a demand for syrup of
rose and also for flavoring extract of rose for making syrups.  The quality of
this extract will be governed by the fineness and amount of the oil of rose
employed in making it, and the purer the oil the better the flavor.  The nearer
this preparation can be made to resemble the finest quality of rose the more
nearly it fulfills the object of its name.  The following formula may be used
in its preparation .
     In this connection we will call attention to our remarks concerning the
oils of lemon and orange, and add thereto that commercial oil of rose may be
obtained of various qualities and at as many prices.  Those who use a fine
quality of oil will naturally find their extract of rose superior to an extract
made of the same quantity of inferior oils; and in this matter it may be said
that the fixing of quantities in the formulae that follow is to a considerable
extent guesswork, owing to the differences in the oils of rose of commerce.

S-29. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ROSE (BEST).

     Oil of rose,          20 drops.
     Alcohol,          4 fluidounces.
     Water,          12 fluidounces.
     Diluted alcohol,          16 fluidounces.

     Dissolve the oil of rose in the diluted alcohol and color with cochineal
color to suit the taste.

S-30.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ROSE (CHEAP).

     Oil of rose,               5 drops.
     Oil of rose geranium,          10 drops.
     Diluted alcohol,               16 fluidounces.
     Dissolve the oils in the diluted alcohol and color with cochineal color
to suit the taste.

S-31.  FLAVORING EXTRACT OF SARSAPARILLA.

     Oil of wintergreen,           1/2 ounce.
     Oil of sassafras,                1/2 ounce.
     Alcohol,               5 fluidounces.
     Water,               10 fluidounces.
     Caramel,               a sufficient quantity.

     Triturate the mixed oils with magnesium carbonate enough to form a thick
cream, then with the mixed alcohol and water, and filter.  To the filtrate add
enough caramel to color dark brown.
     This extract is designed to represent the drug neither in flavor nor in
quality, but, upon the contrary, is made up of flavors that have been adopted
and affixed to the syrup or beverage sold under the name sarsaparilla, and is
foreign altogether to the drug.  It is used as a flavor for mineral water
beverages and soda syrups, and is a mixture of wintergreen and sassafras, and
its connection with sarsaparilla drug is imaginary.

S-32. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF STRAWBERRY.

     Fluid extract of orris root,           1/2 fluidounce.
     Acetic ether,               1 fluidrachm.
     Oil of cognac,               5 drops.
     Alcohol,               4 fluidounces.
     Diluted alcohol,               4 fluidounces.
     Water,               20 fluidounces.
     Cochineal color,               a sufficient quantity.

     Mix the ingredients well together.  Color to a bright strawberry red with
the cochineal color, and after a few days filter if necessary.    Extracts of
strawberry, as is well known, are made from mixtures of ethers, and while the
flavor is pleasant and often reminds one of strawberry fruit, still we cannot
say that the artificial flavors with which we are acquainted compare with the
odor of the fresh fruit.  They will answer for making syrups when the fruit is
out of season or when a true juice of the fruit cannot be obtained, but we must
say that we do not commend these artificial extracts as being representatives
of the fruit itself.  The formulae that we present are such as will produce
good trade extracts.

FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF VANILLA.

     Vanilla extracts vary in quality in accordance with the fineness of the
vanilla bean that is used in making them.  If the operator desires a superior
extract of vanilla, the bean employed as a base must be good.  We refer now to
vanilla that is designed to be unexcelled and that is made from vanilla.  Much
of the cheap extract of the market is made from Tonka bean, coumarin, or other
similar aromatic flavors.  It is often, perhaps, necessary for druggists to
make similar cheap extracts in order to compete with such commercial
preparations as are used in some confectioneries, and, in addition to an
extract of the best quality, he may desire to make an inferior brand for cheap
trade. We therefore give several formulae, from which selection may be readily
made.

For a soda water flavor we commend the following:

S-33.  FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (FINE).

     Vanilla, fine,           1/2 ounce.
     Sugar,about            1/2 ounce.
     Alcohol, water,          of each a sufficient quantity.

     Cut the vanilla beans transversely into thin slices, place in an iron
mortar, and by concussion, gradually adding sugar to absorb the juice, crush
the bean until reduced to the condition of a coarse powder. Prepare a percolator
 for percolation, introduce the powder in the usual manner, press gently, and
cover with dilute alcohol (about twenty fluidounces).  When this liquid appears
at the exit, cork the percolator and allow maceration to progress for a period
of twenty-four hours. Then remove the stopper and allow the percolation to
progress slowly until one pint of tincture is obtained.
     This extract is of a rich dark-brown color, and its quality will be in
accordance with that of the bean used in its manipulation.  If the operator
uses stronger alcohol than we direct, the extract will be of a much lighter
color.  True extract of vanilla improves in flavor and aroma by age, and it is
better to use that which has been made a month or more.

S-34. FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (CHEAP).

     Balsam Peru,          k ounce.
     Vanilla,          k ounce.
     Sugar, alcohol, water,           of each a sufficient quantity.

     Rub the balsam of Peru with magnesium carbonate sufficient to make a
powder.  Cut and bruise the vanilla with the sugar as directed in the preceding
formula.  Mix the two powders, pack in a percolator, and exhaust in the usual
manner (see preceding formula), obtaining therefrom one pint of extract.
     This extract is, in our opinion, to be preferred to flavoring extract of
vanilla that is strengthened with Tonka.

S-35. FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (CHEAP).

     Vanilla,          1/4 ounce.
     Tonka,          1/4 ounce.
     Sugar, water, alcohol,      of each a sufficient quantity.

     Reduce the beans to a powder with sugar, as directed in formula No. 33,
pack in a prepared percolator, and extract with dilute alcohol, making one pint
of the extract.

S-36. FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (CHEAP).

     Tonka (or vanillons),          1 ounce.
     Balsam Peru,               1/4 ounce.
     Sugar, alcohol, water,           of each a sufficient quantity.

     Reduce the beans and balsam of Peru to a powder, as directed in No. 34,
and exhaust the mixture by percolation as directed therein. Make one pint of
extract.
     It will be observed that this preparation can make no claim (if made of
Tonka) to the title of vanilla, and yet it is similar, in our opinion, to some
of the cheap extracts of "vanilla" of the market.
     From the foregoing formulae the operator can likely make a selection to
suit his taste or that of a patron.  We would strongly urge, however, that, if
consulted in the matter, he recommend the product of formula No. 33, and that,
if desirous of building up a good and permanent soda-water business, he use
only an extract made of a fine quality of vanilla bean.

S-37. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF WINTERGREEN.

     Oil of wintergreen,     1 fluidounce.
     Alcohol,          15 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     This extract may be made of the fresh berries, but not of the flavor
strength produced by the foregoing formula.  There is perhaps a freshness in
the extract that is made of the berries that is wanting in the solution of the
oil, but few persons, however, can procure fresh wintergreen berries.  In
selecting oil of wintergreen, it is to be borne in mind that the commercial oil
is likely to be either oil of white birch or synthetical oil.

SODA-WATER SYRUPS.

     The foundation of most of these syrups is either simple syrup or rock-
candy syrup.  The latter of these can now be purchased in every American city,
and, although it is a little more expensive than simple syrup, many pharmacists
prefer it to that preparation.  Rock-candy syrup is not prone to crystallize,
and many believe its sweetening power to be enough superior to that of syrup
made of sugar to repay the price of substitution.  Again, in the rush of a busy
season the druggist often has neither the time nor the conveniences to make the
large bulk of syrup necessary to supply his demand, and the ready-made rock-candy
syrup of the market is then a convenience.
     Simple syrup made according to the U. S. P. is too thick for use as a
soda syrup.  It is difficult to mix it with the carbonated water, and it sticks
to the glass.  For a simple soda syrup the following formula has stood the test
of years:

S-38.  SIMPLE SYRUP (SODA SYRUP).

     Pure white sugar,          35 (avoirdupois) pounds.
     Distilled water,          20 pints.

     Pour the water into a kettle, add the sugar, and bring the mixture to a
boil, stirring constantly.  Then remove from the fire and strain while hot.
     This syrup will neither crystallize in cold nor ferment in warm weather.
(The addition of certain vegetable extractives will cause any simple syrup to
ferment.)
     Either rock-candy syrup, or simple syrup made according to the foregoing
formula, can be used in the formulae that follow when "syrup" is commended.

S-39. SYRUP OF ALMOND OR PEACH.

     Flavoring extract of almond (peach),        1/2 fluidounce.
     Syrup,               15 1/2 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.

S-40.  CHOCOLATE SYRUP.

     Flavoring extract of chocolate,     4 fluidounces.
     Syrup,               12 fluidounces

     Mix them together.
     This syrup is brown and unsightly.

S-41.  SYRUP OF COFFEE.

     Flavoring extract of coffee,          4 fluidounces.
     Syrup,               12 fluidounces

     Mix them together.

S-42. SYRUP OF COFFEE.

     Coffee (Java),          8 troyounces.
     Sugar,          20 troyounces
     Boiling water,          a sufficient amount.

     Percolate the coffee with the hot water until ten fluid ounces of
percolate are obtained, and in the percolate dissolve the sugar.

S-43. SYRUP OF GINGER.

     Flavoring extract of ginger,          1 fluidounce.
     Syrup,               32 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.
     This syrup is likely to be unsightly from the presence of finely divided
resin.  It is also too peppery for some persons, and must be made with less
ginger than is called for by our formula.  The formula that follows is more
mild and yields a transparent product.

S-44.  SYRUP OF GINGER.

     Soluble extract of ginger,          2 fluidounces.
      Syrup,               30 fluidounces

     Mix them together.

S-45. SYRUP OF LEMON.

     Syrup,               1 pint.
     Flavoring extract of lemon,          2 fluidrachms.
     Citric acid,               1 drachm.
     Curcuma color, water, frothing
          liquid, (see S-67 through S-70)     of each a sufficient amount.

     Dissolve the powdered citric acid in one-half fluidounce of water, add to
the syrup, and then add the extract, frothing liquid, and enough curcuma color
to bring to a lemon-yellow color.  By referring to our remarks concerning lemon
extract the operator will find that the quality of syrup of lemon depends upon
the quality of the lemon extract employed in making it.  Since we give several
formulae, choice thereof is readily made.

S-46. SYRUP OF NECTARINE.

     Flavoring extract of nectarine,     ...1 fluidounce.
     Syrup,               15 fluidounces.

     Mix them together.

S-47.  SYRUP OF ORANGE.

     Syrup,               1 pint.
     Flavoring extract of orange,          2 fluidrachms.
     Citric acid,               1 drachm.
     Curcuma color, water, frothing
          liquid,               of each a sufficient amount.

     Dissolve the powdered citric acid in one half fluidounce of water, add to
the syrup, and then add the extract, frothing liquid, and enough curcuma color,
modified by a small amount of cochineal color, to bring to an orange-yellow
color.  By referring to our remarks concerning orange extract, the operator will
find that the quality of syrup of orange depends upon the quality of the orange
extract employed in making it.  Since we give several formulae, choice thereof
is readily made.

S-48.  SYRUP OF BLOOD ORANGE.

     Syrup of blood or red orange is not distinguished from the foregoing
excepting by its color.  To make it, color the syrup of orange with cochineal
color until it is of a rich red color.

S-49. SYRUP OF PINE:APPLE.

     Syrup,               1 pint.
     Flavoring extract of pineapple,     1 fluidrachm.
     Curcuma color, frothing liquid,
                         of each a sufficient amount.

     Mix the simple syrup and the extract of pineapple, color the liquid
appropriately with tincture of curcuma, and then add the frothing liquid.

S-50.  SYRUP OF RASPBERRY.

     Flavoring extract of raspberry,     2 fluidrachms.
     Simple syrup,               1 pint.
     Cochineal color, frothing liquid,
                              of each a sufficient amount.

     Mix the extract with the syrup, color with an appropriate amount of
cochineal color, and add the frothing liquid if desirable.

S-51. SYRUP OF ROSE.

     Flavoring extract of rose,     1 fluidounce.
     Syrup,          1 pint.

     Mix them together and color red with cochineal color.

S-52. SYRUP OF SARSAPARILLA.

     Flavoring extract of sarsaparilla,     1 fluidounce.
     Syrup,               1 pint.

     Mix them together and color dark brown with caramel.

S-53.  SYRUP OF STRAWBERRY.

     Flavoring extract of strawberry,     2 fluidrachms.
     Simple syrup,               1 pint.
     Cochineal color, frothing liquid,
                             of each a sufficient amount.

     Mix the extract with the syrup, color with an appropriate amount of
cochineal color, and add the frothing liquid if desirable.

S-54.  SYRUP OF VANILLA.

     Syrup,               1 pint.
     Flavoring extract of vanilla,          2 fluidrachms.
     Caramel, cochineal color, frothing
                  liquid,          of each a sufficient amount.

     Mix the extract and the syrup, then add caramel and cochineal color
enough to give a clear red brown, and finally add the frothing liquid.
     By referring to our remarks on flavoring extract of vanilla, it will be
seen that the quality of syrup of vanilla depends on the quality of the extract
employed in making it.  The operator can, therefore, select as his judgment
dictates, but our experience is to the effect that the extract made of prime
long vanilla is best suited to build up a business and retain it.
     In like manner other soda syrups may be extemporaneously prepared by
mixing together flavoring extracts and syrup.  It is unnecessary for us to
consume space with details that will suggest themselves to every druggist.

CREAM SYRUPS.

     These syrups have long been favorites, and when made of pure fresh milk
are delicious.  In former times they were made with much care and replenished
daily.  Now we learn that condensed milk is often substituted for fresh milk,
and simple syrup is mixed therewith.  The formulae that follow are such as were
used thirty years ago, and in our judgment have no superiors.

S-55. CREAM SYRUP (ORANGE CREAM).

     Milk,               1 quart.
     Sugar,          2 1/2 pounds.

     Dissolve the sugar in the milk by the aid of a gentle heat, stirring
constantly, strain, and when cool add four fluidrachms of flavoring extract of
orange and enough curcuma color to bring to a rich cream color.  This syrup
must be freshly made each day.

S-56.  NECTAR SYRUP (NECTAR CREAM).

     Milk,          1 quart.
     Sugar,     2 1/2 pounds.

     Dissolve the sugar in the milk by the aid of a gentle heat, stirring
constantly, strain, and when cool add four fluidrachms of flavoring extract of
best vanilla (or nectar) and enough cochineal color to bring to a deep pink. 
This syrup must be freshly made every day.

FRUIT SYRUPS.

     In recent years fruit juices have largely replaced some of the artificial
flavors of former times.  These juices are manufactured in large amounts by
experienced men, and druggists usually find it better to purchase them than to
attempt their manipulation.  They produce delicious syrups, and, in our opinion,
are very much to be preferred to most of the ordinary imitation syrups that are
made of artificial ethers. Full directions for making syrups accompany them,
and we need not, therefore, consider these substances in detail.  While we do
not recommend an attempt at manufacturing these juices generally in a small way,
we believe it often judicious for the apothecary to make syrups direct from
some of the juicy fruits when they are plentiful and in season.  The following
are suggested if the respective fruit is abundant and cheap; if not, it is
better to purchase fruit juices on the market and make the syrup therefrom*.
*Men who devote their entire attention to these problems become expert, and even
learn to make close imitations of natural juices by artificial methods.  Their
knowledge is gained at the expense of much study and experiment, and represents
heavy investments, and it is needless to observe that detailed results are not
distributed promiscuously .

S-57.  BLACKBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.

     Heat ripe blackberries to the boiling point and express the juice.  To
four pints of juice add six pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle
securely while hot.  It must be kept in a cool, dark location.

S-58.  RASPBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.

     Heat ripe berries to the boiling point and express the juice.  To four
pints of juice add six pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely
while hot.  It must be kept in a cool, dark location.

S-59.  STRAWBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.

     Heat ripe berries to the boiling point and express the juice.  To four
pints of juice add six pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely
while hot.  It must be kept in a cool, dark location.

S-60.  CHERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.

     Heat ripe fruit to the boiling point and express the juice. To four pints
of juice add six pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while
hot.  It must be kept in a cool, dark location.

S-61.  GRAPE (FRUIT) SYRUP.

     Heat ripe fruit to the boiling point and express the juice. To four pints
of juice add six pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while
hot.  It must be kept in a cool, dark location.

S-61.  PINEAPPLE (FRUIT) SYRUP.

     Wash and then slice the pineapples thinly, without removing the peel;
then mix therewith one pound of sugar for each pound of fruit, and occasionally
stir the mixture for two or three days, then squeeze the syrup therefrom and
bottle it.

S-63.  QUINCE (FRUIT) SYRUP.

     Quarter and seed the quinces without removing the peel.  Slice thinly,
and mix therewith one pound of sugar for each pound of fruit, and occasionally
stir the mixture for two or three days, then add some water if too thick, and
squeeze the syrup therefrom and bottle it.    Most persons peel such fruits as
pineapple and quince, and thereby lose the rich aroma which mostly resides in
the peel.  Quince especially becomes insipid if peeled.
     Other fruit syrups can be made of juicy fruits by similar methods.

WINE SYRUPS.

     These artful compounds of liquors are in our opinion neither calculated
to encourage a desirable trade nor promote the general welfare of the community. 
Whether we are believers in alcoholic beverages or not, we must all admit that
the drug-store is not the place for tippling.  Some of the most pronounced
opponents of "wine syrups" are to be found among men who uphold the liquor
traffic in its lawful sphere.  In our opinion, apothecaries may very
consistently refuse to supply such flavors, and in many instances, when they
are furnished, the act is apparently one of thoughtlessness on the part of the
proprietor.  The soda fountain of a drug-store, it seems to us, is designed as
a location where the families of our patrons may obtain harmless beverages and
refreshing drinks, and it seems to be a breach of trust to confront them
indiscriminately with liquors and wines, sweetened and flavored to better suit
the taste of children and beget an appetite therefore.*

*In my former experience (see Introduction) I well remember a curious occurrence
in this direction.  An officer of the army asked me for brandy and soda water: I
informed him that it was against the rules of the store to furnish liquors.  He
abused me roundly, and finally Mr. Gordon came to my rescue and told him plainly
that he must go to a saloon if he wanted liquor.  Afterward he returned and
apologized to me for his violent language and complimented the management of
the establishment.

"TONIC" SYRUPS.

     We cannot too strongly condemn the indiscriminate use of nervines in the
form of beverages.  Perhaps there may be an excuse for the affixing of a name
only to a fanciful, harmless syrup, the name reminding one of a remedy, and yet
it seems as though the use or imaginary use of medicines should be left to the
discretion of physicians.
     Such "tonics" even as solution of phosphate of calcium in acid water, so
fashionable in some instances at present, may better be left to the discretion
of physician prescribers who understand the systemic condition of the
"debilitated."  It seems to us as though much injury may result in the continued
drinking of phosphoric acid and other medicines by persons who do not need such
substances, and who simply imagine that they should " take a tonic."
     The same remarks apply to "iron tonics" and "calisaya tonics," and other
similar syrups; and while "syrup of beef extract" may do no harm, it seems to
us enough out of place as a beverage to give even a man in health the horrors
and a dislike for beef tea in its proper place. We may, with our views of this
matter expressed, be pardoned for omitting formulae for such compounds.
COLORS.


     Throughout this work various substances for coloring are occasionally
commended.  They are, or should be, harmless, and are necessary adjuncts, for
the public taste must be pampered in the way of bringing certain syrups to
resemble the colors of the fruits that they are designed to imitate.  It is
important that these colors should be innocuous, and luckily the shades desired
can be easily obtained.  At the present time beautiful, concentrated red,
yellow, green, and other colors can be purchased of dealers in essential oils,
and are warranted free from any poison or objectionable impurity, and may be
substituted for those we commend.  The colors we direct may be made as follows
(natural fruit syrups do not demand artificial colors).

S-64.  SOLUTION OF COCHINEAL (CARMINE).

     This preparation has been used some years by the writer in preference to
any "tincture" of cochineal.  The fat in cochineal causes such preparations to
putrefy in warm weather; and to extract the fat by means of ether from the
powdered cochineal, previous to tincturing it, is expensive and tedious.  The
term "tincture of cochineal" is scarcely appropriate as applied to the aqueous
solutions made of cochineal, cream of tartar, and alum, and, as the object is
simply to secure a coloring matter, the term might with equal propriety be
applied to our solution of carmine, made as follows:

     Carmine, No. 40,               60 grains.
     Distilled water, glycerin,          of each 4 ounces.
     Ammonia water,               a sufficient quantity.

     Powder the carmine and triturate with the water, gradually adding ammonia
water until the carmine disappears and a dark red liquid, free from insoluble
matter, remains.  To this add the glycerin and mix.  Should this solution ever
become murky, a little ammonia water will restore its transparency.
     Solution of carmine is necessarily alkaline and cannot be employed to
color acid liquids.  For all neutral or alkaline solutions it is admirable, and
for soda-water syrups is far preferable to aniline red.

S-65. CURCUMA  [TURMERIC]  (YELLOW).

     Macerate four ounces of good curcuma in a pint of alcohol, shaking
occasionally for seven days, then filter.

S-66. CARAMEL  [BURNT SUGAR]  (BROWN).

      In a capacious iron kettle, over a direct fire, melt a pound of sugar,
and increase the temperature until empty reumatic vapors have been freely
driven off and the residue has acquired a deep black color. Then remove from
this fire, allow to partially cool, and gradually and cautiously stir two pints
of hot water into it.
     This operation must be performed in the open air or over a good flue, for
the vapors are very irritating when inhaled.  Caution must also be employed in
pouring the water into the hot mass, for if it be very hot the material will be
thrown violently from the kettle by the sudden expansion of steam.  If caramel
is only wanted in small amount, it is best to purchase it.

FROTHING LIQUIDS.

     In some cases it is desirable that a syrup should froth considerably. 
Judgment, however, must be employed in adding the frothing liquid, as well as
drawing the carbonated water into the syrup, for some syrups are naturally
inclined to foam too much.  Among our formulae we occasionally direct the use
of a frother, and the operator can select from the following that which best
suits his taste.

     S-67. The white of one egg added to a quart of the syrup specified.

     S-68. One ounce of mucilage of acacia added to a quart of the syrup.

     S-69. Two drachms of tincture of soap bark (quillaya) added to a quart of
     the syrup.

     The first and second of these have been in use for a long time; the last
is a comparatively recent addition.  That the first and second are both
harmless is evident, and we have as yet heard no complaints concerning tincture
of quillaya.

S-70.  TINCTURE OF SOAP BARK (QUILLAYA).

     Take of ground or powdered quillaya,     4 ounces.
     Alcohol, water,               of each a sufficient amount.

     Moisten the quillaya with a mixture of alcohol two ounces, water fourteen
ounces, and, having allowed the moistened powder to stand an hour to expand,
pack it loosely in a percolator.  Cover with menstruum, and when it appears at
the exit of the percolator cork the exit and allow the mixture to macerate from
twelve to twenty-four hours.  Then continue the percolation until one pint of
tincture be obtained.
     This tincture is of an opalescent color and is likely to precipitate by
age; it should be kept in a cool locality.  It can be made clear by increasing
the proportion of alcohol in the menstruum, but this increase of alcohol is at
the expense of the frothing power of the product.  The larger the amount of
alcohol the less its comparative value as a froth producer.  One ounce of the
foregoing tincture is sufficient for a gallon of syrup.