Diseases Of The Respiratory Apparatus
DISEASES OF THE NOSE
is what everybody knows as a cold in the nose or cold in the head.
Etiology.--Its cause is
toxin poisoning from intestinal decomposition of food. Toxin poisoning is
the chronic state of the patient when catching cold becomes a habit. The
exciting cause of a cold may be overeating, resulting in an extra amount
of indigestion or constipation. Lowered resistance from any influence that
uses up nerve energy may be the cause of a cold.
feels indisposed. Perhaps he has a chill, headache, backache, ache in the
legs; or he may simply be inconvenienced by the discomfort in his head and
nose--a headache and a running at the nose. The temperature will be very
light--possibly 101° F. The mucous membrane of the nose becomes very
greatly irritated and swollen, so that it is impossible for the patient to
breathe through both nostrils at the same time, and sometimes both
nostrils are stopped up. The secretion is a thin, clear fluid, almost like
water. But it is sometimes very irritating to the mucous membrane, and
also to the skin of the lips and face with which it comes in contact.
Sometimes the tear-ducts are swollen, so that the water runs out of the
eyes profusely, The eyes themselves become engorged. Where the disease
extends down the nasal passage, there may develop pharyngitis, and even
laryngitis. After twenty-four or thirty-six hours the secretion becomes
thicker and heavier, perhaps yellowish. In thirty-six hours the secretion
is a greenish yellow.
eating, drink freely of hot water, and compel the bowels to move
thoroughly by using several enemas, if necessary. There is no objection to
a laxative, on the order of castor oil. But if the patient wants to get
well quickly and thoroughly, he should stay away from food.
II. HAY FEVER
is a chronic disease of the mucous membrane lining the nose,
accompanied by gastric symptoms on the order of chronic subacute
gastritis. The general opinion today appears to be that the disease is
caused by the pollen of certain grasses and plants, also dust, irritating
the mucous membrane. The very latest cure is an infusion made from pollen,
etc. But those who would like to get well should understand the etiology.
It is chronic catarrh, with chronic irritation of the stomach. Hearty
eating--eating heating foods, such as starch, sugar, and fats, beyond the
system's need--produces such a sensitive state of the mucus membrane of
the nose and stomach that, when the atmosphere is filled with dust and
pollen, those who have the disease highly developed suffer a great deal.
In fact, any fine particles of dust drawn into the nose with the air will
make the hay fever subject very uncomfortable. These patients catch cold
frequently in the winter as well as in the summer.
Treatment.--Stop all food and
drink hot water freely until the patient is entirely relieved. Then it
would be proper to keep away from food until the subject can go out in the
weeds and be free from suffering, even though he breathes the dust from
the grasses. Then he should have fruit twice a day--morning and noon. In
the evening he may have a little lamb, chicken, fish, or eggs, with a
combination salad and one or two cooked, non-starchy vegetables. The meat
dinners may be taken about every other day; the alternate days any of the
decidedly starchy foods may be taken, with cooked, non-starchy vegetables
and a salad. This style of eating should be adhered to until the frost
comes. A complete fast right at the start of the symptoms will soon bring
relief. Those who have eaten meat twice or three times a day will do best
to go entirely without meat until health is restored. Those subject to
this condition should never use much carbohydrate food, and should shun
sweets of all kinds.
EPISTAXIS (Nose bleeding)
eating to hyperemia, and a catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membrane
of the nose, are often the basic causes of nosebleeding. Young people
develop a catarrhal inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membrane of
the nose which is so annoying that they fall into the very bad habit of
picking at the nose, and, by poisoning the mucous membrane with the
fingernails, a very raw and irritable state of the mucous membrane is
produced. The wounding of the mucous membrane with the fingernails
develops in time an ulceration. This ulceration is often deep enough to
cause a necrosis of a blood vessel of sufficient size to cause profuse
bleeding. Again, the nosebleeding may come from constitutional
derangements--a high blood pressure, dysemia, anemia, uremia, etc. This
condition, with a little catarrhal ulceration, may cause the subject to be
very much inclined to bleed at the nose. This style of bleeding is more
profuse than the other. Then there is a nosebleeding which is due to a
deficiency of fibrin in the blood. When this element is deficient, the
blood loses its power to coagulate. Such cases as this make bleeding very
dangerous. Cases such as this have been known to bleed to death.
Unfortunately, the more these cases bleed, the easier it is for them to
Apoplectic subjects are inclined to
have nosebleed. It is a conservative measure; for the oftener and the more
the nosebleeds, the less becomes the blood pressure, which is one of the
causative symptoms. If relief from the excessive blood pressure in the
head is not had in some way, a blood vessel is liable to rupture, and the
patient will then be in a state of apoplexy, with a clot on the brain and
partial paralysis, if death does not occur very soon after the hemorrhage
Treatment.--In the first class
of cases the patients must be instructed to keep their fingers out of
their noses. Digging at the nose must stop. The mucous membrane should be
greased frequently with camphor ice. This will prevent a drying, and also
relieve the irritation that causes the patient to dig at the mucous
The eating should be corrected. Too
much starch, sugar, and fat are being eaten. If these are cut down
decidedly, or suspended entirely for a while, the nose will have an
opportunity to get well. In bleeding from congestive headaches, with high
blood pressure, the patient should lie down, have the bowels washed out
thoroughly, stop eating, and, as soon as the pulse drops down, there will
be no more bleeding. In cases of high blood pressure, with a perverted
state of the blood, profuse bleeding is an indication of arteriosclerosis
and an apoplectic state of the blood vessels of the brain.
Those in this peculiar state must go
without food until the blood pressure is completely overcome. Plugging up
the nose may give a temporary and unpleasant relief; but this is not a
proper treatment--it is inexcusable, bungling, and unscientific. Reduce
the blood pressure; keep food and fluid away from the patient; keep the
patient quiet; and in a reasonable time the bleeding will stop. Then the
patient should be instructed to be careful about eating and drinking of
any fluid, because there is no assurance that apoplexy or paralysis will
not ensue before relief from the bleeding can be had.
It is dangerous for blood pressure to
remain high enough to cause an occasional nosebleeding. The eating for
people who have high blood pressure should be fruit, vegetable salads, and
very light meals of meat; but starch, sugar, and fat should be kept away
from them until they are safe--until the blood pressure is brought down to
DISEASES OF THE LARYNX
ACUTE CATARRHAL LARYNGITIS
inflammation of the larynx may come on with a cold, or following a cold.
Etiology.--Catching cold, or
over-use of the voice, may be the cause of the irritation and inflammation
in this disease. It is a derangement which public speakers often develop.
Foreign bodies may lodge in the air-passages and create trouble. It may be
brought on from accidental poisoning.
sensation is felt in the larynx. Cough follows. Where the irritation and
inflammation are severe the patient may lose his voice. He will talk in a
whisper or in a husky voice. If he is a lawyer or a public speaker, and
uses his voice under such circumstances, he may lose his voice completely.
The edematous state of the mucus membrane caused by the inflammation may
become so great that the voice will be lost. This, of course, is only
temporary. Talking or singing increases the edema.
voice. Stop food for a few days; then eat fruit for a few days following
the fast. Gradually increase the amount of food; but if a few days of
fasting do not restore the voice, the fasting should be continued. As soon
as the voice has returned, if there is still a little soreness, the
patient may use fresh, uncooked fruit morning, noon, and night until the
symptoms have passed away.
is the same as the preceding, except that the patient has been imprudent;
he has continued eating, and has developed more or less indigestion. He
has continued to use the voice until the inflammation has become chronic.
Patients in this state have a hoarse, rough voice. Sometimes it is
altogether lost. The feeling is such as to cause the patient to want to
clear the throat; but every effort is a failure, because there is nothing
to be cleared, except perhaps a little mucus. The feeling that there is
something there is caused by the swelling of the mucous membrane, which
partially closes the passage.
Treatment.--If there is
any trouble with the nose--chronic inflammation or ulceration, or growths
in the nose--these should be treated with a spray; or, if the spray is not
desirable, by a strict diet. Fasting for a few days or a week, and then
living on a light diet, such as fruit and salad, will bring the disease to
an end gradually. Fruit then may be taken in the morning, and fruit, with
buttermilk, at noon; simply buttermilk at night. Continue this until all
symptoms ,are well overcome; then a full diet: fruit for breakfast, fruit
and whole-wheat bread for lunch, and the usual meat and starch dinners, in
of the glottis is a very serious affection. It is not often met with. Of
course, it is caused by wrong life.
Symptoms.--There is difficult
breathing, gradually increasing in intensity. It strikes terror to the
patient, and fear increases the trouble. It may be brought on by various
influences--scarlet fever, diphtheria, typhoid fever. In all these cases
there is a kidney derangement, and perhaps albumin in the urine.
must be examined to find out what is the matter. If there is anything
wrong with the kidneys, it must be corrected. Just what the application
should be to the throat, should be left to the patient. If ice feels most
comfortable, it should be applied. If heat feels more comfortable, then
very hot cloths should be applied. If the symptoms are urgent, and death
is threatening, a spray of cocaine may give relief. Before resorting to
this kind of relief, however, the physician should make up his mind as to
whether the case is desperate enough to justify tracheotomy. It should not
be postponed too long. Possibly using the spray of cocaine or other drugs
might cause the disease to travel down the trachea. This would complicate
affairs by causing edema to spring up in the trachea at perhaps the point
where the tracheotomy tube would be inserted; and should the edema
establish itself below the point of the tracheotomy tube, the patient
would be tortured with the operation for no purpose, as death will soon
take him from his torment.
disease is started up by a slight catarrhal cold. Then, if the child is of
a nervous character, the difficult breathing may cause it to be irritable;
it will struggle, and the struggling causes the suffocation to be greater,
or it may cause a spasm to take place in the larynx. Some authorities
claim it is purely a nervous affection.
child in a hot bath. At the same time wash out the bowels with a fountain
syringe. Whatever is wrong with the child should be corrected. If it is
teething, and the gums are very much swollen, lancing them will relieve
the irritation, and possibly through this relief the laryngitis will be
relieved. Inasmuch as this disease is of a nervous character, anything
that will produce nervous irritation will have a tendency to make the
same causes that produce pulmonary tuberculosis will cause this trouble.
There must be the history of wrong life coming on for several years
before. Children, however, who are born with the tubercular diathesis, and
in whom this predisposition is marked, win not have to live many years in
contempt of proper living before they develop tuberculosis in some part of
the body. If there is a predisposition for the trouble to locate in the
throat, it may start up in the larynx. Sometimes this disease of the
throat starts up a few months before pulmonary tuberculosis develops.
'Then again the disease may be wholly confined to the throat, and carry a
patient off in what is known as "galloping consumption."
indication is a huskiness. Following this is a hoarseness, which in turn
is followed by a whisper. Patients get to the point where it is impossible
for them to get the voice above a whisper. Where there are pulmonary
symptoms it is a very easy matter to diagnose the disease. The history,
and the build of the patient, together with marks of a predisposition to
develop such diseases, are usually sufficient for a diagnosis.
voice; build up the organism as much as possible. Patients should stay out
in the fresh air and sunshine. The disease is not easily controlled; in
fact, as in pulmonary tuberculosis, if there is inherited a decided
predisposition for the disease, and the disease is well developed,
palliation is all that can be given.
will be a hoarseness, as well as a history of an infection. Possibly
there will be an ulcer that can be observed through the laryngoscope.
There will be mucous patches on the mouth, the hair will fall out, and
there will be more or less skin eruption. It is possible that such cases
have been treated for syphilis. If so, they have taken arsenic; the mouth
trouble or any trouble with the skin or mucous membrane will probably be
due to the treatment.
must be corrected. The diet must be made perfect. For the first month of
treatment the patient is to be kept on a fast, and fresh, uncooked fruit
and vegetables. The first week may be a fast. If the case is very severe,
the fast should be of two weeks' duration. The second week a diet of fruit
may be given; and the third and fourth weeks there may be had a dinner of
vegetables and meat every other day, with a combination salad, and for the
alternate dinners a starch in the place of meat. In all cases of laryngeal
disease there should be given a hot bath every night before going to bed.
If, however, bathing in the evening causes nervousness, it may be taken in
the morning, followed with cold sponge-bathing; and the baths are to be
followed with dry towel-rubbing. The same treatment should be given
laryngeal syphilis that is recommended for constitutional syphilis; and
constitutional syphilis is to be treated the same as all other diseases;
namely, by correcting the life of the patient.
From my standpoint, most of these
cases are drug diseases, brought on from treating so-called syphilis--a
disease the patient never has had.