Index ~ Home

 

 

 

Next PREFACE

HIMALAYAN JOURNALS

OR
 

NOTES OF A NATURALIST

IN BENGAL, THE SIKKIM AND NEPAL HIMALAYAS,
THE KHASIA MOUNTAINS, ETC.

by
 

JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., R.N., F.R.S.

 


Volume I  -  Volume II


 

View of Kinchinjunga from Mr. Hodgson’s Bungalow at Dorjiling.

 

To CHARLES DARWIN, F.R.S., etc.

These volumes are dedicated
by his affectionate friend,


J. D. HOOKER

Kew, Jan. 12th, 1854

 

PREFACE

CONTENTS

—::—

 

Chapter I

Sunderbunds vegetation — Calcutta Botanic Garden — Leave for Burdwan — Rajah's gardens and menagerie — Coal-beds, geology, and plants of — Lac insect and plant — Camels — Kunker — Cowage — Effloresced soda on soil — Glass, manufacture of — Atmospheric vapours — Temperature, etc. — Mahowa oil and spirits — Maddaobund — Jains — Ascent of Paras-nath — Vegetation of that mountain.


Chapter II

Doomree — Vegetation of table-land — Lieutenant Beadle — Birds — Hot springs of Soorujkoond — Plants near them — Shells in them — Cholera-tree — Olibanum — Palms, form of — Dunwah pass — Trees, native and planted — Wild peacock — Poppy fields — Geography and geology of Behar and Central India — Toddy-palm — Ground, temperature of — Baroon — Temperature of plants — Lizard — Cross the Soane — Sand, ripple-marks on — Kymore hills — Ground, temperature of — Limestone — Rotas fort and palace — Nitrate of lime — Change of climate — Lime stalagmites, enclosing leaves — Fall of Soane — Spiders, etc. — Scenery and natural history of upper Soane valley — Hardwickia binata — Bhel fruit — Dust-storm — Alligator — Catechu — Cochlospermum — Leaf-bellows — Scorpions — Tortoises — Florican — Limestone spheres — Coles — Tiger-hunt — Robbery.


Chapter III


Ek-powa Ghat — Sandstones — Shahgunj — Table-land, elevation, etc. — Gum-arabic — Mango — Fair — Aquatic plants — Rujubbund — Storm — False sunset and sunrise — Bind hills — Mirzapore — Manufactures, imports, etc. — Climate — Thuggee — Chunar — Benares — Mosque — Observatory — Sar-nath — Ghazeepore — Rose-gardens — Manufactory of attar — Lord Cornwallis' tomb — Ganges, scenery and natural history of — Pelicans — Vegetation — Insects — Dinapore — Patna — Opium godowns and manufacture — Mudar, white and purple — Monghyr islets — Hot springs of Seetakoond — Alluvium of Ganges — Rocks of Sultun-gunj — Bhaugulpore — Temples of Mt. Manden — Coles and native tribes — Bhaugulpore rangers — Horticultural gardens.


Chapter IV

Leave Bhaugulpore — Kunker — Colgong — Himalaya, distant view of — Cosi, mouth of — Difficult navigation — Sand-storms — Caragola-Ghat — Purnea — Ortolans — Mahanuddy, transport of pebbles, etc. — Betel-pepper, cultivation of — Titalya — Siligoree — View of outer Himalaya — Terai — Mechis — Punkabaree — Foot of mountains — Ascent to Dorjiling — Cicadas — Leeches — Animals — Kursiong, spring vegetation of — Pacheem — Arrive at Dorjiling — Dorjiling, origin and settlement of — Grant of land from Rajah — Dr. Campbell appointed superintendent — Dewan, late and present — Aggressive conduct of the latter — Increase of the station — Trade — Titalya fair — Healthy climate for Europeans and children — Invalids, diseases prejudicial to.


Chapter V

View from Mr. Hodgson's of range of snowy mountains — Their extent and elevation — Delusive appearance of elevation — Sinchul, view from and vegetation of — Chumulari — Magnolias, white and purple — Rhododendron Dalhousiζ, arboreum and argentium — Natives of Dorjiling — Lepchas, origin, tradition of flood, morals, dress, arms, ornaments, diet — Cups, origin and value — Marriages — Diseases — Burial — Worship and religion — Bijooas — Kumpa Rong, or Arrat — Limboos, origin, habits, language, etc. — Moormis — Magras — Mechis — Comparison of customs with those of the natives of Assam, Khasia, etc.


Chapter VI

Excursion from Dorjiling to Great Rungeet — Zones of vegetation — Tree-ferns — Palms, upper limit of — Leebong, tea plantations — Ging — Boodhist remains — Tropical vegetation — Pines — Lepcha clearances — Forest fires — Boodhist monuments — Fig — Cane-bridge and raft over Rungeet — Sago-palm — India-rubber — Yel Pote — Butterflies and other insects — Snakes — Camp — Temperature and humidity of atmosphere — Junction of Teesta and Rungeet — Return to Dorjiling — Tonglo, excursion to — Bamboo, flowering — Oaks — Gordonia — Maize, hermaphrodite flowered — Figs — Nettles — Peepsa — Simonbong, cultivation at — European fruits at Dorjiling-Plains of India.


Chapter VII
 

Continue the ascent of Tonglo — Trees — Lepcha construction of hut — Simsibong — Climbing-trees — Frogs — Magnolias, etc. — Ticks — Leeches — Cattle, murrain amongst — Summit of Tonglo — Rhododendrons — Skimmia — Yew — Rose — Aconite — Bikh poison — English genera of plants — Ascent of tropical orders — Comparison with south temperate zone — Heavy rain — Temperature, etc. — Descent — Simonbong temple — Furniture therein — Praying-cylinder — Thigh-bone trumpet — Morning orisons — Present of Murwa beer, etc.


Chapter VIII

Difficulty in procuring leave to enter Sikkim — Obtain permission to travel in East Nepal — Arrangements — Coolies — Stores — Servants — Personal equipment — Mode of travelling — Leave Dorjiling — Goong ridge — Behaviour of Bhotan coolies — Nepal frontier — Myong valley — Ilam — Sikkim massacre — Cultivation — Nettles — Camp at Nanki on Tonglo — Bhotan coolies run away — View of Chumulari — Nepal peaks to west — Sakkiazong — Buceros — Road to Wallanchoon — Oaks — Scarcity of water — Singular view of mountain-valleys — Encampment — My tent and its furniture — Evening occupations — Dunkotah-Cross ridge of Sakkiazong — Yews — Silver-firs-View of Tambur valley — Pemmi river — Pebbly terraces — Geology — Holy springs — Enormous trees — Luculia gratissima — Khawa river, rocks of — Arrive at Tambur — Shingle and gravel terraces — Natives, indolence of — Canoe ferry — Votive offerings — Bad road — Temperature, etc. — Chingtam village, view from — Mywa river and Guola — House — Boulders — Chain-bridge — Meepo, arrival of — Fevers.


Chapter IX

Leave Mywa — Suspension bridge — Landslips — Vegetation — Slope of river-bed — Bees' nests — Glacial phenomena — Tibetans, clothing, ornaments, amulets, salutation, children, dogs — Last Limboo village, Taptiatok — Beautiful scenery — Tibet village of Lelyp — Opuntia — Edgeworthia — Crab-apple — Chameleon and porcupine — Praying-machine — Abies Brunoniana — European plants — Grand scenery — Arrive at Wallanchoon — Scenery around — Trees — Tibet houses — Manis and Mendongs — Tibet household — Food — Tea-soup — Hospitality — Yaks and Zobo, uses and habits of — Bhoteeas — Yak-hair tents — Guobah of Walloong — Jatamansi — Obstacles to proceeding-Climate and weather — Proceed — Rhododendrons, etc. — Lichens — Poa annua and Shepherd's purse — Tibet camp — Tuquoroma — Scenery of pass — Glaciers and snow — Summit — Plants, woolly, etc.


Chapter X

Return from Wallanchoon pass — Procure a bazaar at village — Dance of Lamas — Blackening face, Tibetan custom of — Temple and convent — Leave for Kanglachem pass — Send part of party back to Dorjiling — Yangma Guola — Drunken Tibetans — Guobah of Wallanchoon — Camp at foot of Great Moraine — View from top — Geological speculations — Height of moraines — Cross dry lake-bed — Glaciers — More moraines — Terraces — Yangma temples — Jos, books and furniture — Peak of Nango — Lake — Arrive at village — Cultivation — Scenery — Potatos — State of my provisions — Pass through village — Gigantic boulders — Terraces — Wild sheep — Lake-beds — Sun's power — Piles of gravel and detritus — Glaciers and moraines — Pabuk, elevation of — Moonlight scene — Return to Yangma — Temperature, etc. — Geological causes of phenomena in valley — Scenery of valley on descent.


Chapter XI

Ascend to Nango mountain — Moraines — Glaciers — Vegetation — Rhododendron Hodgsoni — Rocks — Honey-combed surface of snow — Perpetual snow — Top of pass — View — Elevation — Geology — Distance of sound — Plants — Temperature — Scenery — Cliffs of granite and hurled boulders — Camp — Descent — Pheasants — Larch — Himalayan pines — Distribution of Deodar, note on — Tassichooding temples — Kambachen village — Cultivation — Moraines in valley, distribution of — Picturesque lake-beds, and their vegetation — Tibetan sheep and goats — Cryptogramma crispa — Ascent to Choonjerma pass — View of Junnoo — Rocks of its summit — Misty ocean — Nepal peaks — Top of pass — Temperature, and observations — Gorgeous sunset — Descent to Yalloong valley — Loose path — Night scenes — Musk deer.


Chapter XII

Yalloong valley — Find Kanglanamo pass closed — Change route for the southward — Picrorhiza — View of Kubra — Rhododendron Falconeri — Yalloong river — Junction of gneiss and clay-slate — Cross Yalloong range — Yiew — Descent — Yew — Vegetation — Misty weather — Tongdam village — Khabang — Tropical vegetation — Sidingbah mountain — View of Kinchinjunga — Yangyading village — Slopes of hills, and courses of rivers — Khabili valley — Ghorkha Havildar's bad conduct — Ascend Singalelah — Plague of ticks — Short commons — Cross Islumbo pass — Boundary of Sikkim — Kulhait valley — Lingcham — Reception by Kajee — Hear of Dr. Campbell's going to meet Rajah — Views in valley — Leave for Teesta river — Tipsy Kajee — Hospitality — Murwa beer — Temples — Acorus Calamus — Long Mendong — Burning of dead — Superstitions — Cross Great Rungeet — Boulders, origin of — Purchase of a dog — Marshes — Lamas — Dismiss Ghorkhas — Bhoteea house — Murwa beer.


Chapter XIII

Raklang pass — Uses of nettles — Edible plants — Lepcha war — Do-mani stone — Neongong — Teesta valley — Pony, saddle, etc. — Meet Campbell — Vegetation and scenery — Presents — Visit of Dewan — Characters of Rajah and Dewan — Accounts of Tibet — Lhassa — Siling — Tricks of Dewan — Walk up Teesta — Audience of Rajah — Lamas — Kajees — Tchebu Lama, his character and position — Effects of interview — Heir-apparent — Dewan's house — Guitar — Weather — Fall of river — Tibet officers — Gigantic trees — Neongong lake — Mainom, ascent of — Vegetation — Camp on snow — Silver-firs — View from top — Kinchin, etc. — Geology — Vapours — Sunset effect — Elevation — Temperature, etc. — Lamas of Neongong — Temples — Religious festival Bamboo, flowering — Recross pass of Raklang — Numerous temples, villages, etc. — Domestic animals — Descent to Great Rungeet.


Chapter XIV

Tassiding, view of and from — Funereal cypress — Camp at Sunnook — Hot vapours — Lama's house — Temples, decorations, altars, idols, general effect — Chaits — Date of erection — Plundered by Ghorkas — Cross Ratong — Ascend to Pemiongehi — Relation of river-beds to strike of rocks — Slopes of ravines — Pemiongehi, view of — Vegetation — Elevation — Temple, decorations, etc. — Former capital of Sikkim — History of Sikkim — Nightingales — Campbell departs — Tchonpong — Edgeworthia — Cross Rungbee and Ratong — Hoar-frost on plantains — Yoksun — Walnuts — View — Funereal cypresses — Doobdi — Gigantic cypresses — Temples — Snow-fall — Sikkim, etc. — Toys.


Chapter XV

Leave Yoksun for Kinchinjunga — Ascend Ratong valley — Salt-smuggling over Ratong — Landslips — Plants — Buckeem — Blocks of gneiss — Mon Lepcha — View — Weather — View from Gubroo — Kinchinjunga, tops of — Pundimcliff — Nursing — Vegetation of Himalaya — Coup d'œil of Jongri — Route to Yalloong — Arduous route of salt-traders from Tibet — Kinchin, ascent of — Lichens — Surfaces sculptured by snow and ice — Weather at Jongri — Snow — Shades for eyes.


Chapter XVI

Ratong river below Mon Lepcha — Ferns — Vegetation of Yoksun, tropical — Araliaceζ, fodder for cattle — Rice-paper plant — Geology of Yoksun — Lake — Old temples — Funereal cypresses — Gigantic chart — Altars — Songboom — Weather — Catsuperri — Velocity of Ratong — Worship at Catsuperri lake — Scenery — Willow — Lamas and ecclesiastical establishments of Sikkim — Tengling — Changachelling temples and monks — Portrait of myself on walls — Block of mica-schist — Lingcham Kajee asks for spectacles — Hee-hill — Arrive at Little Rungeet — At Dorjiling — Its deserted and wintry appearance.


Chapter XVII

Dispatch collections — Acorns — Heat — Punkabaree — Bees — Vegetation — Haze — Titalya — Earthquake — Proceed to Nepal frontier — Terai, geology of — Physical features of Himalayan valleys — Elephants, purchase of, etc. — River-beds — Mechi river — Return to Titalya — Leave for Teesta — Climate of plains — Jeelpigoree — Cooches — Alteration in the appearance of country by fires, etc. — Grasses — Bamboos — Cottages — Rajah of Cooch Behar — Condition of people — Hooli festival — Ascend Teesta — Canoes — Cranes — Forest — Baikant-pore — Rummai — Religion — Plants at foot of mountains — Exit of Teesta — Canoe voyage down to Rangamally — English genera of plants — Birds — Beautiful scenery — Botanizing on elephants — Willow — Siligoree — Cross Terai — Geology — Iron — Lohar-ghur — Coal and sandstone beds — Mechi fisherman — Hailstorm — Ascent to Kursiong — To Dorjiling — Vegetation — Geology — Folded quartz-beds — Spheres of feldspar — Lime deposits.

 


 

HIMALAYAN JOURNALS

OR
 

NOTES OF A NATURALIST

IN BENGAL, THE SIKKIM AND NEPAL HIMALAYAS,
THE KHASIA MOUNTAINS, ETC.

by
 

JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., R.N., F.R.S.

 


Volume II


 

Kinchinjunga from the Thlonok River, with Rhododendrons in flower.

CONTENTS

—::—

 

Chapter XVIII

Arrangements for second journey into Sikkim — Opposition of Dewan — Lassoo Kajee — Tendong — Legend of flood — Lama of Silok-foke — Namtchi — Tchebu Lama — Top of Tendong — Gigantic oak — Plants — Teesta valley — Commencement of rains — Bhomsong — Ascent to Lathiang — View — Bad road — Orchids — Gorh — Opposition of Lama — Arrival of Meepo — Cross Teesta — Difficulties of travelling — Lepchas swimming — Moxa for sprains — Singtam — Grandeur of view of Kinchinjunga — Wild men — Singtam Soubah — Landslips — Bees’ nests and honey-seekers — Leeches, etc. — Chakoong — Vegetation — Gravel terraces — Unpleasant effects of wormwood — Choongtam, scenery and vegetation of — Inhabitants — Tibetan salute — Lamas — Difficulty of procuring food — Contrast of vegetation of inner and outer Himalaya — Rhododendrons — Yew — Abies Brunoniana — Venomous snakes — Hornets and other insects — Choongtam temple — Pictures of Lhassa — Minerals — Scenery.


Chapter XIX

Routes from Choongtam to Tibet frontier — Choice of that by the Lachen river — Arrival of supplies — Departure — Features of the valley — Eatable Polygonum — Tumlong — Cross Taktoong river — Pines, larches, and other trees — Chateng pool — Water-plants and insects — Tukcham mountain — Lamteng village — Inhabitants — Alpine monkey — Botany of temperate Himalaya — European and American fauna — Japanese and Malayan genera — Superstitious objections to shooting — Customs of people — Rain — Run short of provisions — Altered position of Tibet frontier — Zemu Samdong — Imposition — Vegetation — Uses of pines — Ascent to Thlonok river — Balanophora wood for making cups — Snow-beds — Eatable mushrooms and Smilacina — Asarabacca — View of Kinchinjunga — Arum-roots, preparation of for food — Liklo mountain — Behaviour of my party — Bridge constructed over Zemu — Cross river — Alarm of my party — Camp on Zemu river.


Chapter XX

Camp on Zemu river — Scenery — Falling rocks — Tukcham mountain — Height of glaciers — Botany — Gigantic rhubarb — Insects — Storm — Temperature of rivers — Behaviour of Lachen Phipun — Hostile conduct of Bhoteeas — View from mountains above camp — Descend to Zemu Samdong — Vegetation — Letters from Dorjiling — Arrival of Singtam Soubah — Presents from Rajah — Parties collecting arum-roots — Insects — Ascend Lachen river — Thakya-zong — Tallum Samdong village — Cottages — Mountains — Plants — Entomology — Weather — Halo — Diseases — Conduct of Singtam Soubah — His character and illness — Agrees to take me to Kongra Lama — Tungu — Appearance of country — Houses — Poisoning by aram-roots — Yaks and calves — Tibet ponies — Journey to Kongra Lama — Tibetan tents — Butter, curds, and churns — Hospitality — Kinchinjhow and Chomiomo — Magnificent scenery — Reach Kongra Lama pass.


Chapter XXI

Top of Kongra Lama — Tibet frontier — Elevation — View — Vegetation — Descent to Tungu — Tungu-choo — Ponies — Kinchinjhow and Chango-khang mountains — Palung plains — Tibetans — Dogs — Dingcham province of Tibet — Inhabitants — Dresses — Women’s ornaments — Blackening faces — Coral — Tents — Elevation of Palung — Lama — Shawl-wool goats — Shearing — Siberian plants — Height of glaciers, and perpetual snow — Geology — Plants, and wild animals — Marmots — Insects — Birds — Choongtam Lama — Religious exercises — Tibetan hospitality — Delphinium — Perpetual snow — Temperature at Tungu — Return to Tallum Samdong — To Lamteng — Houses — Fall of barometer — Cicadas — Lime deposits — Landslips — Arrival at Choongtam — Cobra — Rageu — Heat of climate — Velocity and volume of rivers measured — Leave for Lachoong valley — Keadom — General features of valley — Lachoong village — Tunkra mountain — Moraines — Cultivation — Lachoong Phipun — Lama ceremonies beside a sick-bed.


Chapter XXII

Leave Lachoong for Tunkra pass — Moraines and their vegetation — Pines of great dimensions — Wild currants — Glaciers — Summit of pass — Elevation — Views — Plants — Winds — Choombi district — Lacheepia rock — Extreme cold — Kinchinjunga — Himalayan grouse — Meteorological observations — Return to Lachoong — Oaks — Ascend to Yeumtong — Flats and debacles — Buried pine-trunks — Perpetual snow — Hot springs — Behaviour of Singtam Soubah — Leave for Momay Samdong — Upper limit of trees — Distribution of plants — Glacial terraces, etc. — Forked Donkia — Moutonneed rocks — Ascent to Donkia pass — Vegetation — Scenery — Lakes — Tibet — Bhomtso — Arun river — Kiang-lah mountains — Yaru-Tsampu river — Appearance of Tibet — Kambajong — Jigatzi — Kinchinjhow, and Kinchinjunga — Chola range — Deceptive appearance of distant landscape — Perpetual snow — Granite — Temperatures — Pulses — Plants — Tripe de roche — Return to Momay — Dogs and yaks — Birds — Insects — Quadrupeds — Hot springs — Marmots — Kinchinjhow glacier.


Chapter XXIII

Donkia glaciers — Moraines — Dome of ice — Honey-combed surface — Rocks of Donkia — Metamorphic action of granite veins — Accident to instruments — Sebolah pass — Bees and May-flies — View — Temperature — Pulses of party — Lamas and travellers at Momay — Weather and climate — Dr. Campbell leaves Dorjiling for Sikkim — Leave Momay — Yeumtong — Lachoong — Retardation of vegetation at low elevations — Choongtam — Landslips and debacle — Meet Dr. Campbell — Motives for his journey — Second visit to Lachen valley — Autumnal tints — Red currants — Lachen Phipun — Tungu — Scenery — Animals — Poisonous rhododendrons — Fire-wood — Palung — Elevations — Sitong — Kongra Lama — Tibetans — Enter Tibet — Desolate scenery — Plants — Animals — Geology — Cholamoo lakes — Antelopes — Return to Yeumtso — Dr. Campbell lost — Extreme cold — Headaches — Tibetan Dingpun and guard — Arms and accoutrements — Temperature of Yeumtso — Migratory birds — Visit of Dingpun — Yeumtso lakes.


Chapter XXIV

Ascent of Bhomtso — View of snowy mountains — Chumulari — Arun river — Kiang-lah mountains — Jigatzi — Lhassa — Dingcham province of Tibet — Misapplication of term “Plain of Tibet” — Sheep, flocks of — Crops — Probable elevation of Jigatzi — Yaru-Tsampu river — Tame elephants — Wild horses — Dryness of air — Sunset beams — Rocks of Kinchinjhow — Cholamoo lakes — Limestone — Dip and strike of rocks — Effects of great elevation on party — Ascent of Donkia — Moving piles of debris — Cross Donkia pass — Second visit to Momay Samdong — Hot springs — Descent to Yeumtong — Lachoong — Retardation of vegetation again noticed — Jerked meat — Fish — Lose a thermometer — Lepcha lad sleeps in hot spring — Keadom — Bucklandia — Arrive at Choongtam — Mendicant — Meepo — Lachen-Lachoong river — Wild grape — View from Singtam of Kinchinjunga — Virulent nettle.


Chapter XXV

Journey to the Rajah’s residence at Tumloong — Ryott valley — Rajah’s house — Tupgain Lama — Lagong nunnery — Phadong Goompa — Phenzong ditto — Lepcha sepoys — Proceedings at Tumloong — Refused admittance to Rajah — Women’s dresses — Meepo’s and Tchebu Lama’s families — Chapel — Leave for Chola pass — Ryott river — Rungpo, view from — Deputation of Kajees, etc. — Conference — Laghep — Eatable fruit of Decaisnea — Cathcartia — Rhododendrons — Phieung-goong — Pines — Rutto river — Barfonchen — Curling of rhododendron leaf — Woodcock — Chola pass — Small lakes — Tibet guard and sepoys — Dingpun — Arrival of Sikkim sepoys — Their conduct — Meet Singtam Soubah — Chumanako — We are seized by the Soubah’s party — Soubah’s conduct — Dingpun Tinli — Treatment of Dr. Campbell — Bound and guarded — Separated from Campbell — Marched to Tumloong — Motives for such conduct — Arrive at Rungpo — At Phadong — Presents from Rajah — Visits of Lama — Of Singtam Soubah — I am cross-questioned by Amlah — Confined with Campbell — Seizure of my Coolies — Threats of attacking Dorjiling.


Chapter XXVI

Dr. Campbell is ordered to appear at Durbar — Lamas called to council — Threats — Scarcity of food — Arrival of Dewan — Our jailer, Thoba-sing — Temperature, etc., at Tumloong — Services of Goompas — Lepcha girl — Jews’-harp — Terror of servants — Ilam-sing’s family — Interview with Dewan — Remonstrances — Dewan feigns sickness — Lord Dalhousie’s letter to Rajah — Treatment of Indo-Chinese — Concourse of Lamas — Visit of Tchebu Lama — Close confinement — Dr. Campbell’s illness — Conference with Amlah — Relaxation of confinement — Pemiongchi Lama’s intercession — Escape of Nimbo — Presents from Rajah, Ranee, and people — Protestations of friendship — Mr. Lushington sent to Dorjiling — Leave Tumloong — Cordial farewell — Dewan’s merchandize — Gangtok Kajee — Dewan’s pomp — Governor-General’s letter — Dikkeeling — Suspicion of poison — Dinner and pills — Tobacco — Bhotanese colony — Katong-ghat on Teesta — Wild lemons — Sepoys’ insolence — Dewan alarmed — View of Dorjiling — Threats of a rescue — Fears of our escape — Tibet flutes — Negotiate our release — Arrival at Dorjiling — Dr. Thomson joins me — Movement of troops at Dorjiling — Seizure of Rajah’s Terai property.


Chapter XXVII

Leave Dorjiling for Calcutta — Jung Bahadoor — Dr. Falconer — Improvements in Botanic Gardens — Palmetum — Victoria — Amherstia — Orchids spread by seed — Banyan — Cycas — Importation of American plants in ice — Return to Dorjiling — Leave with Dr. Thomson for the Khasia mountains — Mahanuddy river — Vegetation of banks — Maldah — Alligators — Rampore-Bauleah — Climate of Ganges — Pubna — Jummul river — Altered course of Burrampooter and Megna — Dacca — Conch shells — Saws — Cotton muslins — Fruit — Vegetation — Elevation — Rose of Bengal — Burrampooter — Delta of Soormah river — Jheels — Soil — Vegetation — Navigation — Mosquitos — Atmospheric pressure — Effects of geological changes — Imbedding of plants — Teelas or islets — Chattuc — Salubrious climate — Rains — Canoes — Pundua — Mr. Harry Inglis — Terrya Ghat — Ascent to Churra — Scenery and vegetation at foot of mountains — Cascades.


Chapter XXVIII

Churra, English station of — Khasia people — Garrow people — Houses — Habits — Dress — Arms — Dialects — Marriages — Food — Funerals — Superstitions — Flat of Churra — Scenery — Lime and coal — Mamloo — Cliffs — Cascades — Chamζrops palm — Jasper-rocks — Flora of Churra — Orchids — Rhododendrons — Pine — Climate — Extraordinaiy rain-fall — Its effects — Gardens of Lieuts. Raban and Cave — Leave Churra to cross the mountain range — Coal, shale, and under-clay — Kala-panee river — Lailangkot — Luculia Pinceana — Conglomerate — Surureem wood — Boga-panee river — View of Himalaya — Greenstone — Age of pine-cones — Moflong plants — Coix — Chillong mountain — Extensive view — Road to Syong — Broad valleys — Geology — Plants — Myrung — Granite blocks — Kollong rock — Pine-woods — Features of country — Orchids — Iron forges.


Chapter XXIX

View of Himalaya from the Khasia — Great masses of snow — Chumulari — Donkia — Grasses — Nunklow — Assam valley and Burrampooter — Tropical forest — Bor-panee — Rhododendrons — Wild elephants — Blocks of Syenite — Return to Churra — Coal — August temperature — Leave for Chela — Jasper hill — Birds — Arundina — Habits of leaf-insects — Curious village — Houses — Canoes — Boga-panee river — Jheels — Chattuc — Churra — Leave for Jyntea hills — Trading parties — Dried fish — Cherries — Cinnamon — Fraud — Pea-violet — Nonkreem — Sandstone — Pines — Granite boulders — Iron washing — Forges — Tanks — Siberian Nymphζa — Barren country — Pomrang — Podostemon — Patchouli plant — Mooshye — Enormous stone slabs — Pitcher-plant — Joowye — Cultivation and vegetation — Hydropeltis — Sulky hostess — Nurtiung — Hamamelis chinensis — Bor-panee river — Sacred grove and gigantic stone structures — Altars — Pyramids, etc. — Origin of names — Yandaca cœrulea — Collections — November vegetation — Geology of Khasia — Sandstone — Coal — Lime — Gneiss — Greenstone — Tidal action — Strike of rocks — Comparison with Rajmahal hills and the Himalaya.


Chapter XXX

Best voyage to Silhet — River — Palms — Teelas — Botany — Fish weirs — Forests of Cachar — Sandal-wood, etc. — Porpoises — Alligators — Silchar — Tigers — Rice crops — Cookies — Munniporees — Hockey — Varnish — Dance — Nagas — Excursion to Munnipore frontier — Elephant bogged — Bamboos — Cardiopteris — Climate, etc., of Cachar — Mosquitos — Fall of banks — Silhet — Oaks — Stylidium — Tree-ferns — Chattuc — Megna — Meteorology — Palms — Noa-colly — Salt-smuggling — Delta of Ganges and Megna — Westward progress of Megna — Peat — Tide — Waves — Earthquakes — Dangerous navigation — Moonlight scenes — Mud island — Chittagong — Mug tribes — Views — Trees — Churs — Flagstaff hill — Coffee — Pepper — Tea, etc. — Excursions from Chittagong — Dipterocarpi or Gurjun oil trees — Earthquake — Birds — Papaw — Bleeding of stems — Poppy and Sun fields — — Seetakoond — Bungalow and hill — Perpetual flame — Falconeria — Cycas — Climate — Leave for Calcutta — Hattiah island — Plants — Sunderbunds — Steamer — Tides — Nipa fruticans — Fishing — Otters — Crocodiles — Phœnix paludosa — Departure from India.

Appendix A  B  CDEF  G part 1  G part 2-HI  JK  L